Tag: Suggested Reading

Prenatal Care

Prenatal Care

A pregnancy is an exciting and wonderful event in a woman’s life, one which incorporates remarkable physical changes, intense emotions, and growth in important relationships. About 50% of pregnancies are unplanned, which may have consequences to the physical health of the mother and fetus, as well as emotional turmoil. Planning and preparing for a pregnancy [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Hippocrates first documented mood and bodily symptoms related to the menstrual cycle. In 1931 the term “premenstrual tension” was introduced. This related to a set of symptoms that appeared a week before menses and resolved with the start of menses. In the 1950s, Greene and Dalton coined the term “the premenstrual syndrome” (PMS), but PMS [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Pregnancy

Pregnancy

Pregnancy is a time of great anticipation and immense physiologic change for a woman. A woman’s body goes through significant anatomic and hormonal changes during pregnancy in order to support the development of her growing baby. The estimated date of delivery or “due date” is generally 40 weeks after the first day of the last [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Preconception Care

Preconception Care

Preconception care is the promotion of the health and well-being of a woman and her partner before pregnancy. The optimal time to identify, manage, and treat many potential pregnancy conditions and complications is before pregnancy occurs. The goal of a preconception office visit with a primary care doctor is to identify and assess those medical [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that follows exposure to a traumatic event. Research shows that 10.4% of women and 5.0% of men develop Posttraumatic stress disorder at some point in their lives. The precise reason for the twice greater prevalence of Posttraumatic stress disorder in women is not known, though a combination of biological [...]

September 23, 2011 More

Postpartum Period

The postpartum period, also known as the puerperium, lasts from the delivery of the infant until about 8 weeks after the delivery. Most of the anatomic and physiologic changes a woman experiences in pregnancy will have returned to the normal state by this 8-week time. The new mother will experience many changes during this postpartum [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Postpartum Disorders

Postpartum Disorders

Any psychiatric illness may occur during the postpartum period. However, the most common disorders having an onset, recurrence, or exacerbation in the postpartum period include mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Difficulty with adjustment and problems in the mother-infant relationship may also occur after childbirth. Women who experienced a psychiatric disorder prior to or during the [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory condition that typically causes pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders, and pelvic/hip muscles. It occurs almost exclusively in those over the age of 50 and occurs more often with age. Polymyalgia rheumatica usually begins with stiffness in the morning that lasts greater than 1 hr. The stiffness is [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Polyamory

Polyamory

In American culture monogamy, or the lifelong sexual and emotional commitment of two individuals to each other, is the norm. Unspoken and less frequently practiced is polyamory. Polyamory, from the Greek and Latin roots meaning “many loves,” describes a diverse range of nonmonogamous relationship styles that heterosexuals, lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals practice. To be [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Physicians

Physicians

The first woman who was formally academically trained as a physician in the United States was Elizabeth Blackwell, who graduated at the top of her class in 1849. In 2000, women represented 22.8% of U.S. physicians, and this is increasing, as women now enroll in medical schools at the same rate as men. Currently, during [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Physical Therapy

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy as a profession started in the late 1800s to early 1900s as a way of aiding rehabilitation of patients with poliomyelitis, which first affected children in the United States in 1894. One of the first people to practice physical therapy as a profession was a woman named Mary McMillan, who later served in [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Physical Examination

Physical Examination

 The concept of the adult physical examination has changed significantly in the past several years. As compared to many years ago when having a “physical” meant an annual hour-long history and physical examination, medical care has changed to consist of a series of visits where a broad array of issues are addressed. The care is [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Phobia

Phobia

Phobias are irrational and excessive fears of specific things or situations. Phobias are categorized as a type of anxiety disorder. In modern psychiatry, phobias may be described as specific or simple phobias centered around clearly defined objects or circumstances, or fears around more general circumstances such as agoraphobia (fear of sudden, severe panic attacks) or [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Pharmacists

Pharmacists

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were approximately 217,000 licensed pharmacists in the United States in the year 2000, representing the third largest health care profession (following nurses and physicians). While pharmacists traditionally are known to dispense medications, many are becoming more involved in drug therapy decision-making and patient counseling. Some specialized [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), defines a personality disorder as “… an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Periodontics

Periodontics

The cyclic nature of the female sex hormones is often reflected in gingival tissue changes. Fluctuating levels of progesterone and estrogen may have an adverse effect on gingival response to bacterial plaque. During puberty, the female experiences an increase in the production of estrogen and progesterone resulting in an increase in the prevalence of gingivitis [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Perimenopause

Perimenopause

The term perimenopause is defined as that time about or around menopause. Internationally, the Council of Affiliated Menopause Societies has used the term climacteric to describe the phase during the aging of women marking the transition from the reproductive phase to the nonreproductive state. Generally, it is recommended that perimenopause and climacteric be used synonymously [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Peptic Ulcer Disease

Peptic Ulcer Disease

A peptic ulcer is an erosion in the lining of the stomach or of the duodenum, the first portion of the small intestine. Ulcers develop when the normal defense and repair mechanisms of the lining (mucosa) are impaired, making it susceptible to damage by stomach acid and the digestive enzyme, pepsin. The majority of peptic [...]

September 21, 2011 More

Pelvic Organ prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition denoting the descent of pelvic organs toward or through the vaginal opening. References to prolapse of the womb have first been made in ancient Egypt dating back to 1550 BC. Vaginal vault prolapse refers to significant descent of the vaginal apex (“the top of the vagina”) following a hysterectomy. [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Peer Relationships

Peer Relationships

Peer relationships are among the most influential means of support for people of all ages and have critical implications for social behavior and development. Among the most commonly referenced peer relationships are friendships. Friendships are voluntary relationships that are rooted in common interests and experiences. In childhood, friendships contribute to the acquisition of social competencies [...]

September 21, 2011 More