Tag: Suggested Reading

Sanger, Margaret

Sanger, Margaret

Margaret Sanger, America’s birth control pioneer, was instrumental in the defeat of “Comstock” laws that made it a crime to distribute information about contraceptive techniques. Sanger and her sister, Ethel Byrne, were both imprisoned several times for violations of Comstock laws. She coined the phrase “birth control” after noticing that in countries with lower birth [...]

September 26, 2011 More

Rural Health

Women represent over half (52%) of the 60 million people who live in rural and frontier areas in the United States. In recent years, the image of rural life as simple, healthy, and natural has been replaced with a more complex understanding in which distinct physiological stresses, physical hardships, and community patterns of rural life [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Rubella

Rubella

Rubella is commonly referred to as German measles or 3-day measles. This disease is a common and relatively mild disease of childhood. The disease is caused by an RNA virus (genus: Rubivirus, family: Togaviridae) and humans are the only known host. Rubella is passed by secretions; nasopharyngeal, blood, stool, or urine. The virus can be [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Rosacea

Rosacea

Rosacea is a common facial skin condition that most frequently affects fair-skinned Caucasian women and men of northern European ancestry. While the precise etiology (cause) of rosacea is unknown, it is probably due to some combination of factors in predisposed individuals resulting in an abnormality of the blood supply to the skin (cutaneous vasculature). The [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which the joints are the primary target of progressive inflammation and destruction. This disease affects about 1% of the U.S. population and is nearly three times more common in women than men. It can occur at any age and tends to increase in frequency with age. However, [...]

September 26, 2011 More

Rh Disease

Rh disease is known as hemolytic (having to do with the blood) disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis). Rh refers to the Rh system (antigen groups include C, D, E) on blood cells and specifically the D-antigen. Rh disease develops when antibodies form in an individual with Rh-negative (lack of D-antigen) blood after exposure to [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Renal Disease

Renal Disease

Renal (kidney) disease is a significant health care problem. As of 2000 (the most recent data available from the U.S. Renal Data Service report), the federal government’s cost of providing renal replacement therapy to patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was over 12 billion dollars. Over the past decade, the increase in ESRD program costs [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Regional Rheumatic Pain

Regional Rheumatic Pain

Regional rheumatic pain is a family of syndromes including tendonitis, tenosynovitis, and bursitis. These conditions, although commonly seen in medical practice, are challenging to diagnose. They are usually diagnosed without laboratory testing or x-rays. These conditions of the musculoskeletal system are the result of repetitive overuse along with abnormal body position or mechanics. Tendons, which [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Raynaud’s phenomenon is a condition in which exposure to cold or emotional stress causes skin discoloration and pain. This occurs most often in the fingers, but can also affect the toes, the tip of the nose, and tips of the ears. Raynaud’s phenomenon can occur itself or may be a symptom of an underlying disease. [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Rape

Rape

The Latin word “to steal or carry off” is rapere and described the behavior of ancient Romans who stole their wives from other tribes. Laws delivered by Moses in Deuteronomy 22:22-28 categorized rape and what occurred to victims and perpetrators. The tragedy of rape continues today of children, adolescents, and adults, including the very elderly. [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Queer

Queer

The term queer evolved through different historical contexts during the 20th century. Prior to the Stonewall rebellion in 1969, which marked the beginning of the gay liberation movement, queer, in the context of describing a person, was used almost exclusively as a derogatory term against homosexuals. As the gay liberation movement gained momentum, a new [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Quality of Life

Quality of Life

Quality of life, as a concept, has various meanings and definitions. The World Health Organization has defined quality of life as “an individual’s perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value system in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns. It is a [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Puberty

Puberty

Puberty is a dynamic period of development characterized by maturation of the genital organs, rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, and the emergence of secondary sex characteristics. It marks the first time that adolescents are capable of sexual reproduction. Pubertal development is influenced by a wide array of biological and environmental variables and [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy can be defined as “the treatment of mental or emotional disorders, or of related bodily ills by psychological means.” Another source defines it as “the art of alleviating personal difficulties through the agency of words and a personal, professional relationship.” There are many different types of psychotherapy, each of which has its own premise [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Psychosomatic Disorder

Psychosomatic Disorder

The term psychosomatic disorder generally refers to a medical disorder that is caused by psychological factors. Although the term continues to be used extensively in the medical community, “psychosomatic disorders” largely has been replaced by the term “somatoform disorders,” and is referred to as such in the most recent version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is an intensive treatment method based on the observation that people are usually unaware of the factors responsible for their symptoms, difficulties at work, relationships, moods, irrational fears, and a general inability to enjoy life and live up to their potential. Psychoanalysis is also a basic psychological theory of normal as well as pathological [...]

September 23, 2011 More

Promotoras

Promotoras (or peer health educators) are individuals from a specific community who serve as a link between the members of their community and the health care system. These individuals are trained to provide education on health issues of importance to the community as well as referrals to a variety of services, such as disease screening [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Probate

Probate

Probate stems from the Latin word probare meaning “to prove” and derives its usage from the practice in medieval England of heirs having to prove their right of inheritance of land to the king’s court. At that time in history, land conferred wealth and power upon its owner and its transfer was carefully controlled. The [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Preventive Care

Preventive Care

Prevention of disease and injury is a major part of routine health care. It is important to identify risk factors that predispose patients to a myriad of different illnesses. By identifying risky behaviors or abnormalities, such as high blood pressure, these problems can be modified or eliminated entirely, thus reducing the woman’s risk of future [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Prenuptial Agreement

Prenuptial Agreement

A prenuptial agreement is an agreement made before a marriage that concerns arrangements for when the marriage ends by divorce or death of one of the parties. These agreements are also known as premarital agreements or antenuptial agreements. These agreements usually describe how the parties’ money and possessions will be divided, although some agreements cover [...]

September 23, 2011 More