Tag: Suggested Reading

Socioeconomic Status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a concept intended to describe one’s position in society. While Socioeconomic status is one of the terms most often used to describe this concept in the literature, Socioeconomic status has also been called social class, social status, socioeconomic position, and social inequality (although some of these terms are also used to [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Social Support

Social Support

Social support is the help and assistance or exchange of resources that is given by others within a person’s social network (i.e., a person’s web of social relationships) with the intent to enhance the recipient’s well-being. Social support was first identified as a protective factor against deleterious effects of stress on health by Cassel in [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Social Stress

Social Stress

Social stress plays a major role in a person’s well-being. While many researchers do not differentiate between the terms social stress and stress, social stress is differentiated from physical stress in that physical stress is due to stressors that are directly taxing the physical condition of the body such as excessive physical labor or physical [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Social Security Disability Benefits

Social Security Disability Benefits

Hubert Humphrey observed that “The moral test of government is how it treats those who are in the dawn of life, the children; those who are in the twilight of life, the aged; and those who are in the shadows of life, the sick, the needy and the handicapped.” According to the Social Security Administration, [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Sleep Hygiene

Sleep Hygiene

Sleep hygiene is an important consideration after underlying causes of sleep disturbance have been addressed from neurological, psychiatric, and medical causes, and acute stressors are not immediate by apparent. Sleep hygiene refers to patterns of behavior and attitudes about sleep for a given person. Probably one of the most significant factors is the misunderstanding that [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders

Poor sleep is one of the most common presenting symptoms heard by modern doctors. Many sleep disturbances are caused by ineffective sleep hygiene, which refers to the sum total of the waking behaviors that affect the quality and quantity of our sleep. The first step for the physician in the assessment and treatment of a [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Slavery

Slavery

Slavery was one of the most brutal events in American history, yet in most history courses, little or no information is offered about the health and health care issues of slaves. Furthermore, the existing literature varies greatly in its description of the type of health care given to African/black African American slaves. In the early [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Skin Disorders

Skin Disorders

Skin disorders can be broadly categorized as either rashes or as growths. Rashes are often a result of skin inflammation and can be precipitated by a wide variety of causes. Two common inflammatory diagnoses in women are acne and atopic dermatitis, commonly called eczema. Growths or tumors may be further classified into benign, pre-malignant, or [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Skin Care

Skin Care

The skin is the largest and most exposed organ of the body. its functions are complex and include serving as a physical and immunologic barrier to external substances, retaining water, regulating body temperature, and acting as a sensory organ. The skin is also an integral part of our self-image and is often a focus of [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sjogren’s Syndrome

Sjogren’s Syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of unknown cause that mostly involves the tear glands of the eye and salivary glands of the mouth. It can also cause problems in the lining of the genital, urinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts. Sjogren’s syndrome occurs alone or as part of many other autoimmune disorders. The [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Shingles

Shingles

The pathogenesis (cause) of shingles sounds like science fiction—a virus that causes a common childhood illness lies dormant for 50 or 60 years and then produces a different illness that can lead to severe, lifelong pain. Shingles, or herpes zoster, is caused by a relapse of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV); acute infection with this virus [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Shamans

Shamans

Since early civilization, shamans have been integral in the healing process. The term shaman is derived from “saman,” a Russian term which refers to one that uses ecstasy techniques. Shamankas, which are female shamans, and shamans use ecstasy techniques to act as a channel between the spiritual and physical worlds. During a connection with the [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, refer to a variety of bacterial, viral, and other infections acquired through sexual contact. Sexually Transmitted Diseases are common reasons for visits to clinics and physicians’ offices. Sexually Transmitted Diseases produce significant morbidity and are estimated to cost the health care system billions of dollars each year. Sexually Transmitted Diseases [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sexual Harassment

Sexual Harassment

The 20th century has seen a drastic increase in the number of women in the workforce. This influx of women into the workforce helps explain an increase of sexual harassment in the workplace. In 2002, there were 14,396 charges of sexual harassment filed with the appropriate state and federal authorities. This is a 37% increase [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Sexual Abuse

Sexual Abuse

One out of four women will be sexually assaulted in her lifetime. Since the 1970s, the general public has been exposed to information and education regarding the prevalence of sexual violence against women and children, the lasting effects of sexual trauma, and the development of rape crisis programs. In the 1980s, the United States saw [...]

September 26, 2011 More

Self-Injurious Behavior

Although mental health professionals have yet to establish a universally accepted definition of self-injurious behavior (SIB), the term generally encompasses any intentional, nonsuicidal act upon one’s own body that results in organ or tissue damage. Notably, acts embodied in cultural practices or rituals that are shared by many members of a given society and may [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Seizures

Seizures

Epileptic seizures are episodic and sudden attacks that impair some aspect of a person’s function. These attacks consist of an alteration of one or more spheres of the brain functions such as sensory perception, motor activity, autonomic control, and level of consciousness. Epileptic seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges occurring in the brain. There [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a cycling and atypical mood disorder in which the symptoms get worse in winter when there are shortened days with lessened sunlight in temperate climates. It affects women more than men (about 80% are women) and is more common than one might expect with a prevalence of 1-3% of adults. [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy is a form of treatment for spider veins and varicose veins. Spider veins, or telangiectasias, are small red to blue veins which may appear in up to 50% of women. Varicose veins are larger, blue or purple in color, and may cause pain, throbbing, or burning. The incidence of varicose veins increases as people [...]

September 26, 2011 More

Scleroderma

Scleroderma is a group of diseases that involve abnormal growth of connective tissue, which is the “glue” made of proteins and cells that holds the cells of the body together and gives the skin and organs their shape. In some people, scleroderma affects the skin, causing it to become tight and hard. In others, it [...]

September 26, 2011 More