Tag: Suggested Reading

Injection Drug Use

Injection Drug Use

The hypodermic syringe was invented in 1853 by a Scottish physician named Alexander Wood. For the first time, drugs could be injected under the skin, intramuscularly, or directly into the bloodstream to alleviate health problems. By the 1870s, the hypodermic syringe was widely used by American physicians to administer drugs, such as morphine, heroin, cocaine, [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Inheritance

Inheritance

Although an inheritance need not come from a spouse’s estate, many of the following issues are those faced by widowed women. Due to their greater longevity, women over age 65 are almost three times more likely to be widowed than men. If a woman has not been involved in financial planning with her spouse and [...]

September 15, 2011 More

Inhalant Abuse

Inhalants are chemical compounds and gases that induce a mind-altering effect when inhaled. Inhalants can be found in hundreds of different household and industrial products. One classification system lists four general categories: (a) volatile solvents (e.g., paint thinners, glues, correction fluid, nail polish); (b) aerosol propellants (e.g., hair care products, deodorants, paints); (c) gases used [...]

September 14, 2011 More

Informed Consent

Informed consent is the central ethical and legal practice standard in clinical care and human research. Informed consent, in its ideal form, should be viewed by clinicians, researchers, patients and their families as an opportunity to engage in a substantive, sustained dialogue that not only provides information but also helps all involved to clarify questions, [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Infertility

Infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability of a sexually active, noncontracepting couple to achieve pregnancy in one year, the time to which about 90% of couples succeed. Among couples of reproductive age, about 10% are infertile. Delayed marriage and childbirth is one of the main social factors that has resulted in increased infertility in society. [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Incest

Incest

“Incest” traditionally has been defined as sexual activity between close blood relatives who cannot legally marry. The definition has been expanded to include sexual contact in a kinship-type relationship where sexual activity is usually barred, this including non-blood family members, such as stepparents and stepsiblings. Fathers, stepfathers, uncles, and older siblings are the most frequent [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Immunization

Immunization

Adult immunization has not received the emphasis that has been directed toward vaccinating infants, children, and adolescents. Although vaccination is routine in pediatric practice, it is not commonplace in the practice of physicians who treat adults. Vaccines that should be considered in adult women include tetanus, influenza, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), varicella-zoster, pneumococcus, meningiococcus, and [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Immigrant Health

Immigrant Health

As of March 2000, it was estimated that approximately 10.4% of the U.S. population, or 28.4 million individuals, were immigrants. Prior to 1965, the majority of immigrants came from European countries, such as the United Kingdom, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Germany, and Ireland. However, during the past 30 years, an increasing number of immigrants have come [...]

September 14, 2011 More

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances

Idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), previously called multiple chemical sensitivities, is also known as environmental hypersensitivity (allergy) or environmental illness. Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances is an acquired condition in which a person repeatedly notices symptoms that seem triggered by exposure to a certain chemical substance(s) in amounts that are usually well tolerated by most people. CAUSES Idiopathic [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Hysteria

Hysteria

Few topics in the world of psychoanalysis are as controversial as hysteria. There is no current consensus on whether or not hysteria exists today or whether or not it ever existed at any time at all. Explaining exactly what hysteria is and what it means has challenged and baffled many generations of physicians. As an [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Hypochondriasis

Hypochondriasis

Hypochondriasis is a psychiatric illness in which individuals experience anxiety about misinterpreted physical symptoms that they fear or believe indicate the presence of an undiagnosed medical disease. For example, a mark on the skin may be interpreted as cancer or a sign of AIDS, or sweating may be interpreted as a heart condition. This anxiety [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Hypertension

Hypertension

Hypertension (high blood pressure) is defined as a blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher when measured with a blood pressure cuff or being on medication for high blood pressure. The systolic pressure is the upper number of the reading, while the diastolic pressure is the lower number of the reading. Hypertension is a [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Human papillomavirus

Human papillomavirus

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be the most common viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in this country. As many as 30 million Americans are infected with Human papillomavirus, and each year, an additional 1 million people become infected. More than 80 distinct types of Human papillomavirus have been identified; at least 20 of them can [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Hospice

Hospice

Hospice is the organized provision of care for the dying. Medically, the hospice approach focuses on pain medications in order to ensure comfort, rather than on invasive life-sustaining technologies such as respirators, resuscitation, and artificial nutrition and hydration. Hospice typically provides team support for the dying, including medical and nursing care, psychological counseling, and clinical [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Homosexuality

Homosexuality

Homosexuality is conceptualized in modern times as a sexual orientation. Individuals who are oriented toward romantic and sexual relations with members of the same sex are identified as homosexual, whereas those who are oriented toward the opposite sex are labeled heterosexual. These natural variations in human behavior can be found in all cultures throughout recorded [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Homicide

Homicide

Homicide is the most extreme act of violence. Although all homicides involve death at the hands of another, homicide is in actuality a diverse group of events. Homicides can occur between strangers, acquaintances, and intimate partners; they involve a wide array of physical forces and weapons and they include many types of motivations and precipitating [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Homelessness

Homelessness

At any given night in the United States, approximately 600,000 people are without shelter while more than 2 million may have been homeless in any given year. Estimates put the number in the United States who have experienced homelessness and its health consequences at least once at about 12 million people. Most counts and studies [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) and herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II) are closely related viruses that cause two distinct clinical syndromes, with some overlap in the roles of the two viruses in each syndrome. Infection with HSV-I causes oral lesions (“cold sores,” although not all cold sores are due to HSV-I) and is [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Heroin

Heroin

Revered by Sumerians, Egyptians, Greeks, and other ancient civilizations for its ability to ease pain, the opium poppy has yielded a number of chemical compounds that have revolutionized the control of pain as well as contributed to problems of addiction in modern societies. Morphine, one of the most powerful pain relievers known, was isolated from [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Hermaphroditism

Hermaphroditism

The term hermaphrodite derives from Greek mythology. Hermaphroditus was the son of Aphrodite and Hermes, endowed with the beauty of both deities. One day, he was walking by a lake when the nymph Samalcis instantly fell in love with him. She pleaded for his love, which he soundly rejected. When he later disrobed and jumped [...]

September 13, 2011 More