Gingival bleeding

November 12, 2012

Gingival bleeding

The gums or gingiva are the soft, pink colored tissue inside the mouth. Surrounding the teeth, gums are responsible for their protection. In this way, no infection can reach the teeth’s roots or the maxillary bones. Gingiva are tightly bound to the underlying bone, this is why they are very resistant to the mechanical friction of the food while eating. The gingival bleeding is due to different traumas, infections and inflammation. One must pay attention to long lasting bleedings, because other than creating discomfort, they might be a sign of leukemia or other blood diseases.

Gingival bleeding is more often met in adults, less in children. Children might suffer from it in cases of traumatic tooth brushing. Adults with gingival bleeding, usually present sings of various affections. The biggest incidence is for women and in most of the cases the bleeding has a marginal provenience.

Causes of gingival bleeding

Gingival bleeding is considered to be a result of the modern life style. People eat fast food and very sweet foods. As a result, the excessive quantities of sugar help the formation of the dental plaque. The dental/bacterial plaque is a soft thin film of food debris, mucin, and dead epithelial cells on the teeth, providing the medium for bacterial growth. It contains calcium, phosphorus, and other salts, polysaccharides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, and plays a role in the development of caries, dental calculus, and periodontal and gingival diseases.

Other important causes are:

  • Gingivitis- Inflammation of the gums which causes them to become swollen and tender. The gums tend to bleed easily when the teeth are brushed. The condition is usually caused by food particles or plaque becoming trapped between the teeth and gums;

  • Periodontitis- is an infection in the gums and the bone that holds the teeth in place. If the infection gets worse, your gums may pull away from your teeth, making them look longer;

  • Trauma;

  • Scurvy- a severe disease from vitamin C deficiency;

  • Dental caries- a destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel leading to cavitations of the tooth;

  • Hemophilia- a blood disease, usually genetic, causing failure to clot;

  • Leukemia- a type of cancer that occurs in the blood or bone marrow; Leukemia causes an uncontrolled growth of abnormal white blood cells, the infection fighting cells in the blood. Leukemia is one of the most common types of cancer and one of the top ten cancer killers;

  • Diabetes- a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced;

  • Hormonal changes that might occur in different periods of one’s life, like during pregnancy;

  • Smoking- it leads to the formation of dental tartar, which in turn traumatizes the gums;

  • Injuries caused by hot or cold foods, chemical substances;

  • Dental prostheses;

  • Medication.


  • Bleeding at the slightest touch;

  • Red, swollen and hurtful gums;

  • You can feel the taste of blood inside of your mouth;

  • Sometimes, because of the bleeding, one might get mouth sores and ulcers. This, in turn causes halitosis (bad breath);

  • Sensible teeth.

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