Tag: HIV

Shingles

Shingles

The pathogenesis (cause) of shingles sounds like science fiction—a virus that causes a common childhood illness lies dormant for 50 or 60 years and then produces a different illness that can lead to severe, lifelong pain. Shingles, or herpes zoster, is caused by a relapse of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV); acute infection with this virus [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, refer to a variety of bacterial, viral, and other infections acquired through sexual contact. Sexually Transmitted Diseases are common reasons for visits to clinics and physicians’ offices. Sexually Transmitted Diseases produce significant morbidity and are estimated to cost the health care system billions of dollars each year. Sexually Transmitted Diseases [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Rape

Rape

The Latin word “to steal or carry off” is rapere and described the behavior of ancient Romans who stole their wives from other tribes. Laws delivered by Moses in Deuteronomy 22:22-28 categorized rape and what occurred to victims and perpetrators. The tragedy of rape continues today of children, adolescents, and adults, including the very elderly. [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Psychosomatic Disorder

Psychosomatic Disorder

The term psychosomatic disorder generally refers to a medical disorder that is caused by psychological factors. Although the term continues to be used extensively in the medical community, “psychosomatic disorders” largely has been replaced by the term “somatoform disorders,” and is referred to as such in the most recent version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Prison Health

Prison Health

In 1998 more than 950,000 women were under correctional supervision, comprising about 7% of the overall imprisoned population in the United States. Women represent the fastest growing incarcerated population. The highest percentage has been convicted of property crimes such as check forgery and illegal credit card use. The next largest percentage has been convicted of [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Piercing

Piercing

Body piercing has been practiced in many cultures for many centuries. Depending upon the era, the place, and the culture, body piercing has been variously associated with royalty, spirituality, sexuality, and beauty. Body piercings can be done on almost any part of the body, including ears (lobes and cartilage), eyebrows, nostrils, nasal septums and bridges, [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Neuropathy

Neuropathy

Nerves extend out from the central nervous system (spinal cord or brain) to supply muscle, skin, and other tissues. Nerves are comprised of a large number of microscopic nerve fibers. The core of each nerve fiber is the axon, which is a long, thin extension of a nerve cell located within or near the spinal [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Latinos

Latinos

As of 2011, Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, outnumbering even African Americans. There are over 32 million Latinos in the United States, with an average age of 25 years. To put this into perspective, approximately one in eight people in the United States is Latino, which places the United States [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Lactation

Lactation

Producing milk follows pregnancy and birth as inevitably and naturally as pregnancy follows conception. It is a normal function in all mammals and each species produces milk, which is the best specific food for its own newborn. During pregnancy, under the influence of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, the female breast undergoes noticeable changes. [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Injection Drug Use

Injection Drug Use

The hypodermic syringe was invented in 1853 by a Scottish physician named Alexander Wood. For the first time, drugs could be injected under the skin, intramuscularly, or directly into the bloodstream to alleviate health problems. By the 1870s, the hypodermic syringe was widely used by American physicians to administer drugs, such as morphine, heroin, cocaine, [...]

September 15, 2011 More

Informed Consent

Informed consent is the central ethical and legal practice standard in clinical care and human research. Informed consent, in its ideal form, should be viewed by clinicians, researchers, patients and their families as an opportunity to engage in a substantive, sustained dialogue that not only provides information but also helps all involved to clarify questions, [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Homelessness

Homelessness

At any given night in the United States, approximately 600,000 people are without shelter while more than 2 million may have been homeless in any given year. Estimates put the number in the United States who have experienced homelessness and its health consequences at least once at about 12 million people. Most counts and studies [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) and herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II) are closely related viruses that cause two distinct clinical syndromes, with some overlap in the roles of the two viruses in each syndrome. Infection with HSV-I causes oral lesions (“cold sores,” although not all cold sores are due to HSV-I) and is [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Heroin

Heroin

Revered by Sumerians, Egyptians, Greeks, and other ancient civilizations for its ability to ease pain, the opium poppy has yielded a number of chemical compounds that have revolutionized the control of pain as well as contributed to problems of addiction in modern societies. Morphine, one of the most powerful pain relievers known, was isolated from [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea refers to infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterium that grows in the reproductive tract and moist mucous membranes, such as the mouth, throat, and anus. Gonorrhea is transmitted through sexual contact. Once a person is exposed to gonorrhea, symptoms may appear in several days, or may take up to 1 month. Symptoms of [...]

September 12, 2011 More
Gangs

Gangs

Gangs have existed in this country for decades. What started out as a male-dominated phenomenon in the early 1930s has evolved into a nongender-specific phenomenon. Adolescent females have become increasingly more involved in youth gangs and youth violence in the last 10 years, and as they engage in what is already considered high-risk behaviors, their [...]

September 12, 2011 More
Douching

Douching

Douching is the irrigation or flushing of the vagina with plain water, vinegar and water, or other name brand prepared or medicated products. The fluid is allowed to run into the vagina from a bag connected to tubing or is flushed into the vagina from a premixed squeeze bottle. Many women feel this is necessary [...]

September 1, 2011 More
Condoms

Condoms

Condoms are one of the oldest forms of contraception and the best recognized forms of protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The continued high prevalence of STIs has resulted in a substantial increase in condom use over the past decades. The 1995 report from the National Survey of Family Growth [...]

August 11, 2011 More
Chlamydia

Chlamydia

Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States and the most frequently reported infectious disease; an estimated 3 million cases occur annually. Chlamydia can be transmitted by vaginal, anal, or, less commonly, oral contact. The symptoms of chlamydia, which usually occur within 7-21 days of infection, can be [...]

August 5, 2011 More
Cesarean Section

Cesarean Section

Cesarean section is the name of the abdominal operation used to deliver a baby. The most recent birth statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveal that 24.4% of the 4 million births in the United States in 2001 were by cesarean section, meaning that 1 million cesarean sections were performed in [...]

August 3, 2011 More