Category: T

Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome (TS), alternately referred to as Turner’s syndrome, monosomy X, and gonadal dysgenesis, was first described in 1938 by Dr. Henry Turner in a case report of several girls with short stature, no secondary sexual characteristics, arms that bent outwards at the elbows (called cubitus valgus), neck webbing, and a low posterior hairline. These [...]

September 29, 2011 More

Tubal Ligation

Tubal ligation, often referred to as “tying the tubes,” is one of the most popular methods of fertility control in the United States. This is the most commonly used method of contraception among married or previously married women. The procedure involves ligating, or surgically interrupting the fallopian tubes. This prevents the egg (ovum) from being [...]

September 29, 2011 More
Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia is a descriptive term applied to cases of brief, excruciating, electric-shock-like pains affecting one side or the other of the face. The term derives from combining neuralgia, meaning pain originating aberrantly in a nerve, with trigeminal, the name of the nerve responsible for carrying sensation from the face. It has also been referred [...]

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Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania, a disorder of chronic hair pulling, is classified in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as an impulse control disorder. The individual experiences a recurrent and generally irresistible urge to engage in hair pulling, resulting in significant hair loss. This may occur at multiple sites, most often on the scalp, [...]

September 29, 2011 More
Trichomonas vaginalis is the cause of vaginitis.

Trichomoniasis

Trichomonads are motile, flagellate, protozoan organisms known to cause a diverse spectrum of diseases in humans. Most of these diseases are rare. The single exception is Trichomonas vaginalis, the most significant of these parasites, which infects between 3 and 5 million American women each year. The organism causes an inflammation of the vaginal wall, or [...]

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Transsexuality

Transsexuality

Transsexuality is a clinical diagnosis representing the most extreme manifestation of gender dysphoria—a psychological condition in which a person’s gender identity is opposite that of their assigned sex at birth. Simply stated, the individual believes that they were born into the wrong body, a situation that occurs in approximately equal frequency for individuals originally assigned [...]

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Transgenderism

A simple definition of transgenderism is any form of dress and/or behavior interpreted as contravening traditional gender roles. Transgenderism comprises a diverse collection of individuals expressing one of three basic facets. First, there are those who transform to the opposite gender within the heteronormative dichotomy. (Heteronormativity describes a binary gender system, in which only two [...]

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Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis, caused by a one-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii), is one of the most widespread infections in the world, affecting roughly 50% of the world’s population, regardless of gender. Generally a mild, harmless infection, tox-oplasmosis is of grave concern to two groups of patients: pregnant women and those with suppressed immune systems, due [...]

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Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome is a serious illness that occurs in response to the absorption of a bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) into the general circulation. Most cases occur in women who are menstruating. In order for toxic shock syndrome to develop, the person must be colonized with the bacterium Staph aureus and there must be [...]

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Tobacco

Tobacco

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, there are many species of tobacco plants; the tabacum species is the major source of tobacco products today. Tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. According to the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 57 million Americans are current smokers and 7.6 million use [...]

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Thyroid Diseases

Thyroid Diseases

PHYSIOLOGY The thyroid gland secretes the hormones T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine) which then control metabolism. These hormones act on a wide variety of tissues and in each organ may have slightly different effects. Thyroid hormone secretion is under the control of thyrotropin (a thryoid-stimulating hormone, TSH) which is secreted by the pituitary gland. The [...]

September 28, 2011 More

Thalidomide

Thalidomide, now recognized as the cause of an epidemic of infant malformations, was originally a tranquilizer developed by Ciba, a Swiss pharmaceutical company in 1953. It was one of many chemical compounds discovered in the post-World War II decade. After briefly testing thalidomide, ciba abandoned the product because the company observed no marketable pharmacological effects. [...]

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Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health indicates that 10.8 million people in the United States suffer from temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems at any given time. While both men and women experience Temporomandibular joint problems, 90% of those seeking treatment are women in their childbearing years. Temporomandibular joint [...]

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Teen Pregnancy

Teen Pregnancy

Currently, approximately 15 million girls under the age of 20 in the world have a child each year. Estimates are that 20-60% of these pregnancies in developing countries are mistimed or unwanted. In the united States, the percent of teenage pregnancies that are unintended is estimated at 78%. The rates of teen pregnancy are not [...]

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Tay-Sachs Disease

Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal genetic disorder named after Warren Tay (1843-1927) and Bernard Sachs (1858-1944). Tay was a British ophthalmologist who, in 1881, described the occurrence of cherry-red spots (“Tay’s spots”) on the retinas of three siblings. Sachs was an American neurologist who, in 1887, described cellular changes occurring in the disorder. Sachs [...]

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Tattoos

Tattoos

Tattoos have been used in many cultures to identify beauty, position or status, and worth. They mark rites of passage, such as a life cycle event (marriage, pregnancy, childbirth, death), change in an individual’s social position, the progression from childhood to puberty, and the initiation into social and different family groups. For instance, both men [...]

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Tampon

Tampon

Tampons are used to collect menstrual fluid. They are made of either synthetic fibers such as rayon or natural fibers such as cotton. These fibers are manufactured into a compact tubular shape that allows for easy insertion into the vagina. Tampons come in different levels of absorbency. This allows the woman to select the tampon [...]

September 28, 2011 More