Category: S

Syphilis

Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is a potentially progressive disease that if untreated may cause debilitating disease of the entire body. Syphilis currently is of particular concern because it is believed to increase the transmission of HIV. Syphilis is transmitted during sexual or nonsexual contact with a [...]

October 5, 2011 More
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune, multisystem disease with a wide variety of symptoms. The primary immunological defect is the production of antibodies against one’s own self. These molecules cause tissue injury principally in the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and the lungs and surrounding linings. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus affects 1 in 2,000 [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Suicide

Suicide

Suicide is when a person intentionally ends his or her life. Over the ages society has had differing views regarding this act—from acceptance, in that this is a choice, to considering it as a sin. Currently it is felt that suicide is rather complex resulting from social stressors, psychology, and biological factors. In the United [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Substance Use

Substance Use

Human beings have used mood-altering drugs—or drugs of potential abuse—for hundreds of thousands of years. Their use is due to the fact that all these drugs directly or indirectly produce quick surges of a neurotransmitter or brain chemical called dopamine. Dopamine is a substance which when released in the brain results in a feeling of [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Student Health

Student Health

College students are a sizeable and diverse group of people. In 1995, one quarter of people in the United States between 18 and 24 years of age were either full- or part-time college students, making colleges and universities an important setting for addressing common health issues for young adults. In 2004, nearly 14 million students [...]

September 28, 2011 More

Stroke

Strokes are the third leading cause of death in the united States, following coronary heart disease and cancer. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that every 45 seconds, someone in the United States suffers a new or recurrent stroke; every 3.1 minutes, someone in the United States dies of a stroke. Overall, men are 1.6 [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Stretch Marks

Stretch Marks

Striae gravidarum, also known as “stretch marks,” arise during pregnancy in the majority of women. Common locations include the abdomen, breasts, buttocks, and thighs. Although the exact etiology is unknown, mechanical stress on connective tissue due to increased size of the various portions of the body is thought to be important. There are no significant [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Stress

Stress

The association between stress and health has been documented for decades. Stress can affect health both directly through its physiological effects and indirectly from maladaptive behaviors such as overeating or smoking. While great advances have been made in our understanding the role of stress and its deleterious effects on health, much still remains to be [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Stalking

Stalking

Stalking is a pattern of behaviors which includes repeated annoyance and harassment through unwanted contact with another person. Stalking is a form of violence and occurs in a wide variety of ways, including threatening or unwanted phone calls, following the victim home or to public places, damaging property, or constantly surveilling activities and whereabouts. Some [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Sports injuries

Sports injuries

Women have become increasingly involved in sporting activity over the past 30 years. In 1972, Title IX—a federal antidiscrimination law—led to a significant increase in female sports participation. The Title IX amendment prohibits gender discrimination in secondary and postsecondary educational institutions receiving federal funds. This has led to more women competing at the high school, [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Spirituality

Spirituality

Spirituality is not easily defined. By its very nature it is personal and private. Spirituality concerns our human awareness of and relationship to those aspects of life that are intangible. Spirituality involves our awareness of being a part of something greater and more powerful than ourselves, yet something we cannot touch or see. Unlike science, [...]

September 28, 2011 More

Socioeconomic Status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a concept intended to describe one’s position in society. While Socioeconomic status is one of the terms most often used to describe this concept in the literature, Socioeconomic status has also been called social class, social status, socioeconomic position, and social inequality (although some of these terms are also used to [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Social Support

Social Support

Social support is the help and assistance or exchange of resources that is given by others within a person’s social network (i.e., a person’s web of social relationships) with the intent to enhance the recipient’s well-being. Social support was first identified as a protective factor against deleterious effects of stress on health by Cassel in [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Social Stress

Social Stress

Social stress plays a major role in a person’s well-being. While many researchers do not differentiate between the terms social stress and stress, social stress is differentiated from physical stress in that physical stress is due to stressors that are directly taxing the physical condition of the body such as excessive physical labor or physical [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Social Security Disability Benefits

Social Security Disability Benefits

Hubert Humphrey observed that “The moral test of government is how it treats those who are in the dawn of life, the children; those who are in the twilight of life, the aged; and those who are in the shadows of life, the sick, the needy and the handicapped.” According to the Social Security Administration, [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Smoking

Smoking

Approximately 28% of all men and 22% of all women are current cigarette smokers. Factors that influence smoking initiation, addiction, and smoking cessation as well as the health consequences of smoking are generally similar in men and women. SMOKING INITIATION Many women start to smoke as teenagers. Current figures indicate that, in 2000, about 30% [...]

September 28, 2011 More
Sleep Hygiene

Sleep Hygiene

Sleep hygiene is an important consideration after underlying causes of sleep disturbance have been addressed from neurological, psychiatric, and medical causes, and acute stressors are not immediate by apparent. Sleep hygiene refers to patterns of behavior and attitudes about sleep for a given person. Probably one of the most significant factors is the misunderstanding that [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders

Poor sleep is one of the most common presenting symptoms heard by modern doctors. Many sleep disturbances are caused by ineffective sleep hygiene, which refers to the sum total of the waking behaviors that affect the quality and quantity of our sleep. The first step for the physician in the assessment and treatment of a [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Slavery

Slavery

Slavery was one of the most brutal events in American history, yet in most history courses, little or no information is offered about the health and health care issues of slaves. Furthermore, the existing literature varies greatly in its description of the type of health care given to African/black African American slaves. In the early [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Skin Disorders

Skin Disorders

Skin disorders can be broadly categorized as either rashes or as growths. Rashes are often a result of skin inflammation and can be precipitated by a wide variety of causes. Two common inflammatory diagnoses in women are acne and atopic dermatitis, commonly called eczema. Growths or tumors may be further classified into benign, pre-malignant, or [...]

September 27, 2011 More