Category: P

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory condition that typically causes pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders, and pelvic/hip muscles. It occurs almost exclusively in those over the age of 50 and occurs more often with age. Polymyalgia rheumatica usually begins with stiffness in the morning that lasts greater than 1 hr. The stiffness is [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Polyamory

Polyamory

In American culture monogamy, or the lifelong sexual and emotional commitment of two individuals to each other, is the norm. Unspoken and less frequently practiced is polyamory. Polyamory, from the Greek and Latin roots meaning “many loves,” describes a diverse range of nonmonogamous relationship styles that heterosexuals, lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals practice. To be [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Piercing

Piercing

Body piercing has been practiced in many cultures for many centuries. Depending upon the era, the place, and the culture, body piercing has been variously associated with royalty, spirituality, sexuality, and beauty. Body piercings can be done on almost any part of the body, including ears (lobes and cartilage), eyebrows, nostrils, nasal septums and bridges, [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Physicians

Physicians

The first woman who was formally academically trained as a physician in the United States was Elizabeth Blackwell, who graduated at the top of her class in 1849. In 2000, women represented 22.8% of U.S. physicians, and this is increasing, as women now enroll in medical schools at the same rate as men. Currently, during [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Physical Therapy

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy as a profession started in the late 1800s to early 1900s as a way of aiding rehabilitation of patients with poliomyelitis, which first affected children in the United States in 1894. One of the first people to practice physical therapy as a profession was a woman named Mary McMillan, who later served in [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Physical Examination

Physical Examination

 The concept of the adult physical examination has changed significantly in the past several years. As compared to many years ago when having a “physical” meant an annual hour-long history and physical examination, medical care has changed to consist of a series of visits where a broad array of issues are addressed. The care is [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Phobia

Phobia

Phobias are irrational and excessive fears of specific things or situations. Phobias are categorized as a type of anxiety disorder. In modern psychiatry, phobias may be described as specific or simple phobias centered around clearly defined objects or circumstances, or fears around more general circumstances such as agoraphobia (fear of sudden, severe panic attacks) or [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Pharmacists

Pharmacists

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were approximately 217,000 licensed pharmacists in the United States in the year 2000, representing the third largest health care profession (following nurses and physicians). While pharmacists traditionally are known to dispense medications, many are becoming more involved in drug therapy decision-making and patient counseling. Some specialized [...]

September 23, 2011 More
Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), defines a personality disorder as “… an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Periodontics

Periodontics

The cyclic nature of the female sex hormones is often reflected in gingival tissue changes. Fluctuating levels of progesterone and estrogen may have an adverse effect on gingival response to bacterial plaque. During puberty, the female experiences an increase in the production of estrogen and progesterone resulting in an increase in the prevalence of gingivitis [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Perimenopause

Perimenopause

The term perimenopause is defined as that time about or around menopause. Internationally, the Council of Affiliated Menopause Societies has used the term climacteric to describe the phase during the aging of women marking the transition from the reproductive phase to the nonreproductive state. Generally, it is recommended that perimenopause and climacteric be used synonymously [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Peptic Ulcer Disease

Peptic Ulcer Disease

A peptic ulcer is an erosion in the lining of the stomach or of the duodenum, the first portion of the small intestine. Ulcers develop when the normal defense and repair mechanisms of the lining (mucosa) are impaired, making it susceptible to damage by stomach acid and the digestive enzyme, pepsin. The majority of peptic [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Pelvic Pain

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic pain is one of the most commonly reported symptoms in gynecology practice. Pelvic pain can be acute (of short and limited duration) or chronic (of longer duration). ACUTE PELVIC PAIN Acute pelvic pain is pelvic pain lasting no more than one month. Acute pain of the pelvis can originate from the gastrointestinal organs (bowel [...]

September 21, 2011 More

Pelvic Organ prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition denoting the descent of pelvic organs toward or through the vaginal opening. References to prolapse of the womb have first been made in ancient Egypt dating back to 1550 BC. Vaginal vault prolapse refers to significant descent of the vaginal apex (“the top of the vagina”) following a hysterectomy. [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Pelvic Examination

Pelvic Examination

The pelvic examination is the most important part of the overall gynecologic exam. While the examiner must think about the whole patient, the purpose of the pelvic exam is to screen for abnormalities of the cervix, pelvic masses, including abnormalities of the patient’s uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries as well as observing any abnormalities in [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Peer Relationships

Peer Relationships

Peer relationships are among the most influential means of support for people of all ages and have critical implications for social behavior and development. Among the most commonly referenced peer relationships are friendships. Friendships are voluntary relationships that are rooted in common interests and experiences. In childhood, friendships contribute to the acquisition of social competencies [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Pedophilia

Pedophilia

The sexual molestation of a child is considered by many to be the most morally reprehensible act imaginable. The terms pedophile, child molester, perpetrator, and sex offender are often used interchangeably; they overlap and yet refer to distinct aspects of the behavior and the people who commit sexual acts with children. “Perpetrator” and “sex offender” [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Patients’ Rights

Patients’ Rights

The mystique of medicine and technology combined with an innate desire to maintain the well-being of our bodies has led us to grant a tremendous amount of power to both health care providers and the insurance industry. Health care providers carry an acquired knowledge of corporeal mechanics and the insurance industry holds the purse strings [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Parks, Rosa

Parks, Rosa

On December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks climbed on board the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, she had no way of knowing that her actions that day would change a world, and later result in her being considered one of the founders of the civil rights movement. Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley on February [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown cause, which typically affects people in middle to late life. Named for Dr. James Parkinson, who first described the disease over 180 years ago, Parkinson’s disease needs to be distinguished from Parkinsonism, a descriptive term applied to various features of the disease. Parkinsonism applies to [...]

September 20, 2011 More