Category: M

Medicare

Medicare

Medicare (Title XVIII) of the Social Security Act is a federal health insurance program inaugurated on July 1, 1966. The program is the major health insurance for those over the age of 65 years of age, who are covered by the Social Security system, regardless of income. Amendments to the Social Security Act in 1972 [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Medical Malpractice

Medical Malpractice

There are many forms of legal regulation of medical practice and its practitioners. Among other legal mechanisms, there are state professional licensing and disciplinary statutes and regulations, mandatory oversight by peer review organizations, federal and state parameters on drug and device prescribing, and financial and quality of care audits by public and private third-party payers. [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Medicaid

Medicaid

Medicaid was established in 1965 through the Title XIX of the Social Security Act. This federal-state program was developed to finance health care for low-income persons, specifically the categorically needy and the medically needy. Categorically needy are those receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (now Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) and those who [...]

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Maternal Separation

Maternal Separation

Close proximity of a mother to her infant or child is necessary for survival in humans and other mammals. The close contact promotes emotional attachment and helps to provide food, comfort, and safety. Maternal separation is just as important as close contact for the development of individuality and continued growth of the mother-child relationship. Separations [...]

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Maternal Mortality

Deaths to women that are associated with pregnancy and childbirth fall under the category of maternal mortality. There are more than 500,000 maternal deaths each year in the world, of which almost all (98%) occur in developing nations, but even in the United States two or three women die each day of pregnancy-related causes. Regionally, [...]

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Masturbation

Masturbation

Masturbation is self-stimulation of the genitals, energized by fantasy that leads to sexual arousal and orgasm. In addition to generating sexual desire leading to masturbation, sexual fantasies are created, refined, lustily sanctioned, and at a woman’s caprice, discarded or retained for future use. Masturbation and fantasy influence one another and are inextricably linked. Historically, masturbation [...]

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Mastitis

Mastitis

Mastitis, by definition, is inflammation of the mammary gland. It can occur in any woman; however, it is most common in first-time lactating mothers. This condition is a result of bacterial invasion of breast tissue. Mastitis rarely occurs in the antepartum period (before birth of the baby). Its incidence includes 1-2% of primiparas (first-time mothers) [...]

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Mastectomy

Mastectomy

Mastectomy is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of either the entire breast or a segment of the breast. Usually performed for cancer of the breast, it can also be used for prophylactic removal of the breast for women who are at high risk of developing breast cancer. Breast cancer begins as a local [...]

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Massage

Massage

Massage is derived from the Arabic word mass meaning to press and has been defined by Westland (1993) as the aware and conscience manipulation of soft tissues of the body for therapeutic purposes. Many ancient cultures developed various systems of massage to promote health and healing. Contemporary approaches of massage have included bodywork techniques such [...]

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Masculinity

Masculinity

Masculinity defies a simple definition. It is typically represented as a set of stereotypical characteristics that constitutes an energy, an essence, or a state of being. But in this case, the whole would appear to be greater than the sum of its parts. We recognize masculinity when it is encountered, but it is difficult to [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Marital Status

Marital Status

Sociologists refer to marital status as an achieved characteristic, in the sense that marital behavior is socially defined and influenced, rather than having any biological properties. Children are typically assumed to be single (never married), whereas adults are generally classified as being single, married, separated, divorced, or widowed, although of course people may change categories [...]

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Marijuana

Marijuana

Marijuana or hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a plant that has been cultivated for thousands of years in various parts of the world for its fiber, seeds, medicinal, and psychoactive properties. The chemical compounds responsible for the intoxicating and therapeutic effects are found in the sticky resin released from the flowers of female plants. The marijuana [...]

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Marianismo

Marianismo

As projected, the most recent census data have confirmed that the Latino population has become the largest ethnic minority population in the United States. The increase in population reinforces the need for a greater understanding of cultural variables that impact the provision of culturally competent services. One of these variables is the concept of marianismo. [...]

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Mammary Glands

Mammary Glands

The mammary glands, or breasts, are actually modified sebaceous glands (sweat) that are designed to secrete milk. On average, each breast weighs 200-300 g. They are composed of glandular tissue, fat, and supporting or stromal tissue. Each breast is organized into 12-25 triangular shaped lobes. Each lobe is composed of several smaller lobules. The breast [...]

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Mammography

Mammography

Breasts share the same basic structure. The mammary glands produce milk and are found in clusters throughout the breast. Ducts take the milk from the glands to the nipple during breastfeeding. Lymph nodes are present under the arm. The lymph nodes are small, normally bean-sized structures that help to fight infection and enlarge in the [...]

September 16, 2011 More