Category: L

Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is an infection caused by a bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is carried around in the adult deer tick, Ixodes dammini. It begins as a slowly expanding skin rash and is associated with a tick bite or potential exposure to ticks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began surveillance for Lyme disease [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Lung Transplantation

Lung Transplantation

The field of lung transplantation has seen steady progress over the past two decades and is now widely accepted as a treatment option for end-stage lung disease. According to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), there have been approximately 10,000 lung transplants performed in the United States. Although the list of candidates for lung [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Lung Disease

Lung Disease

This entry focuses on lung disease during pregnancy. PHYSIOLOGY Hyperventilation is a characteristic feature of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the enlarging uterus causes a progressive upward displacement of the diaphragm, to a maximum of 4 cm. This displacement, however, does not impair diaphragmatic function. The diameter of the chest increases by approximately 2 cm; flaring of [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Figure 1. More males than females died over an 11 year period from lung cancer. Note the steadily increasing deaths in women over the same time period.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer, a largely incurable disease, remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among women each year in the United States, exceeding annual breast cancer mortality in women and accounting for 12% of all new female cancer cases (Table 1). Although lung cancer has always been and continues to be more prevalent in men than [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Long-Term Care

Long-Term Care

Long-term care (LTC) typically refers to settings in which individuals reside for ongoing care. Long-term care also refers to heath care needs or supervision that an individual may require for an undetermined time, or even lifelong. Long-term care can be acquired in one’s home or more typically in sheltered care or independence-supporting settings described as [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Living Wills

Living Wills

Beginning with California in the 1970s, all but a couple of states have enacted legislation regarding advance instruction directives for health care. These directives are commonly known as living wills, even though they have nothing to do with the distribution of property and deal with dying rather than living. Living will statutes often are termed [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Liver Spots

Liver Spots

Solar lentigines, also known as “liver spots,” “age spots,” or “sun spots,” are among the most common benign, pigmented lesions of the skin. These light tan to dark brown colored spots develop in areas of the greatest sun exposure of the skin, especially the face, backs of hands, forearms, and upper trunk in elderly persons. [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Liposuction

Liposuction

Today, there is a great deal of pressure on women to conform to an ideal look and body proportion. But no matter how hard they diet and exercise, many women cannot reach this goal. There are areas of fat deposits that just do not seem to disappear. Looking for a solution to this problem, some [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Light Therapy

Light Therapy

Light therapy, also referred to as phototherapy, has been a unique form of treatment for individuals suffering from a depressive disorder that has seasonal patterns. In the majority of cases, these individuals develop an episode of depression in the fall or winter with remission of the episode in the spring. Light therapy requires that the [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy

The mortality experience of a population can be summed up by the measure of life expectancy, which is the average age at death for a hypothetical group of people born in a particular year and being subjected to the risks of death experienced by people of all ages in that year. It is the average [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Libido and Desire

Libido and Desire

Few people can forget the impassioned romance between Julie Christie (Lara) and Omar Sharif (Yuri) in the film Doctor Zhivago, the palpable sexual tension between Kathleen Turner and William Hurt in Body Heat, or the fervent desire expressed by Meg Ryan while faking an orgasm in When Harry Met Sally. Anais Nin’s (1990) erotic stories [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Lesbian Ethics

Lesbian Ethics

A branch of ethics that cultivates the development of individual moral agency and integrity, lesbian ethics distinguishes itself from the focus on social control of traditional ethics. The centerpiece of the theoretical framework is that lesbians are oppressed in all societies. It also acknowledges that lesbians are agents of oppression, because sanctioned moral choices in [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Lesbian

Lesbian

There is no standard definition of lesbian. The term generally refers to a female sexual orientation that may involve one or more of the following components: behavioral, affective, or cognitive understandings of lesbian. The behavioral definition of lesbian emphasizes current or lifetime sexual activity with other women. The affective definition considers the subtleties of sexual [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Laxatives

Laxatives

A laxative is a medicine that loosens the bowel contents and encourages evacuation. A laxative with a mild or gentle effect on the bowel is known as an aperient; and one with a strong effect is known as a cathartic or purgative. Laxatives facilitate evacuation by increasing the stool volume and stimulating the large intestinal [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Latinos

Latinos

As of 2011, Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, outnumbering even African Americans. There are over 32 million Latinos in the United States, with an average age of 25 years. To put this into perspective, approximately one in eight people in the United States is Latino, which places the United States [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is a medical procedure which can be utilized to treat a variety of gynecological disorders. A small tube (endoscope) is introduced into the affected organ. The medical practitioner can visualize the organ, and if indicated, perform surgery/treatments via the endoscope. Laparoscopy is often done to diagnose (by direct visualization) and treat the common condition [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Lactation

Lactation

Producing milk follows pregnancy and birth as inevitably and naturally as pregnancy follows conception. It is a normal function in all mammals and each species produces milk, which is the best specific food for its own newborn. During pregnancy, under the influence of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, the female breast undergoes noticeable changes. [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Labor and Delivery

Labor and Delivery

The process by which a child is born is both simple and intricate. From the moment of conception, it is inevitable that the growing fetus will need to develop, grow, and eventually pass from its uterine environment either by a vaginal delivery or a cesarean section delivery. The cardinal signs of labor or mechanisms of [...]

September 15, 2011 More