Category: I

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. An international consensus of Irritable bowel syndrome specialists has defined Irritable bowel syndrome as “a combination of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms which are not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities.” Although causes of Irritable [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Iron Supplementation

Iron Supplementation

Iron is a trace mineral that is vital for life but needed only in small amounts. Iron plays an important role in oxygen transport and energy production, and because of this, iron is a vital element in the daily diet. The average adult body contains about 4 g of iron, 3 g in active form [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Intrauterine Device

Intrauterine Device

The intrauterine device (IUD) is a T-shaped plastic device that is placed into the uterine cavity. It provides a woman with a continuous method of contraception. The two types of intrauterine device currently available in the United States are the copper-releasing device (ParaGard) and the hormonereleasing device (Mirena). The intrauterine device prevents pregnancy by several [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Intersexuality

Intersexuality

Intersex is a blanket term used to describe individuals who possess bodies that the medical establishment cannot classify definitively as male or female. The occurrence is relatively frequent and is estimated at 1 in every 2,000 births. The variations can be grouped into three major categories. The first encompasses people with chromosomal configurations other than [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Insomnia

Insomnia

Sleep disturbances can have multiple causes. These can be organized into two broad areas, as primary sleep disturbances and secondary sleep disturbances. Primary sleep disturbances usually imply primary neurological sleep disorders, such as disordered breathing/breathlessness during sleep (sleep apnea), restless leg syndrome, and conditions of abnormal daytime sleepiness/”sleep attacks” (cataplexy and narcolepsy). Patients with sleep [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Injection Drug Use

Injection Drug Use

The hypodermic syringe was invented in 1853 by a Scottish physician named Alexander Wood. For the first time, drugs could be injected under the skin, intramuscularly, or directly into the bloodstream to alleviate health problems. By the 1870s, the hypodermic syringe was widely used by American physicians to administer drugs, such as morphine, heroin, cocaine, [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Inheritance

Inheritance

Although an inheritance need not come from a spouse’s estate, many of the following issues are those faced by widowed women. Due to their greater longevity, women over age 65 are almost three times more likely to be widowed than men. If a woman has not been involved in financial planning with her spouse and [...]

September 15, 2011 More

Inhalant Abuse

Inhalants are chemical compounds and gases that induce a mind-altering effect when inhaled. Inhalants can be found in hundreds of different household and industrial products. One classification system lists four general categories: (a) volatile solvents (e.g., paint thinners, glues, correction fluid, nail polish); (b) aerosol propellants (e.g., hair care products, deodorants, paints); (c) gases used [...]

September 14, 2011 More

Informed Consent

Informed consent is the central ethical and legal practice standard in clinical care and human research. Informed consent, in its ideal form, should be viewed by clinicians, researchers, patients and their families as an opportunity to engage in a substantive, sustained dialogue that not only provides information but also helps all involved to clarify questions, [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Infertility

Infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability of a sexually active, noncontracepting couple to achieve pregnancy in one year, the time to which about 90% of couples succeed. Among couples of reproductive age, about 10% are infertile. Delayed marriage and childbirth is one of the main social factors that has resulted in increased infertility in society. [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Incest

Incest

“Incest” traditionally has been defined as sexual activity between close blood relatives who cannot legally marry. The definition has been expanded to include sexual contact in a kinship-type relationship where sexual activity is usually barred, this including non-blood family members, such as stepparents and stepsiblings. Fathers, stepfathers, uncles, and older siblings are the most frequent [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Immunization

Immunization

Adult immunization has not received the emphasis that has been directed toward vaccinating infants, children, and adolescents. Although vaccination is routine in pediatric practice, it is not commonplace in the practice of physicians who treat adults. Vaccines that should be considered in adult women include tetanus, influenza, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), varicella-zoster, pneumococcus, meningiococcus, and [...]

September 14, 2011 More
Immigrant Health

Immigrant Health

As of March 2000, it was estimated that approximately 10.4% of the U.S. population, or 28.4 million individuals, were immigrants. Prior to 1965, the majority of immigrants came from European countries, such as the United Kingdom, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Germany, and Ireland. However, during the past 30 years, an increasing number of immigrants have come [...]

September 14, 2011 More

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances

Idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), previously called multiple chemical sensitivities, is also known as environmental hypersensitivity (allergy) or environmental illness. Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances is an acquired condition in which a person repeatedly notices symptoms that seem triggered by exposure to a certain chemical substance(s) in amounts that are usually well tolerated by most people. CAUSES Idiopathic [...]

September 14, 2011 More