Category: E

What is epigenetics?

What is epigenetics?

Since cracking the human genome, academics and researchers are reconsidering the nature-versus-nurture debate. The question is whether individual traits are determined by our DNA (nature) or by the conditions of development (nurture). Increasingly, the debate is turning towards nurture – more specifically, the environment of DNA in both our ancestors’ cells and in the contemporary [...]

November 9, 2012 More
Exercise

Exercise

Women can expect to maintain a youthful and independent life by establishing a regular exercise program. The multiple benefits of exercise for women are well documented in research conducted over the past 30 years. Exercise can reduce the risk of heart disease, prevent osteoporosis, maintain a healthy body weight, improve mental alertness, reduce fatigue, and [...]

September 7, 2011 More
Ethnicity

Ethnicity

The United States has long encompassed a large number of ethnicities, races, and cultures. This appears to be increasingly true. The country’s recognition of this diversity and its recognition of the considerable strength that such variety brings to the country and its peoples also appear to be increasing. Many other nations are also having similar [...]

September 7, 2011 More
Equal Rights Amendment

Equal Rights Amendment

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) began as a proposed (but unratified) amendment to the U.S. Constitution. First introduced to Congress in 1923, it was not finally approved by the Senate and submitted to the states for ratification until almost 50 years later. The wording in the 1972 version, while not identical to its earlier incarnation, [...]

September 7, 2011 More

Episiotomy

Episiotomy is a procedure designed to enlarge the vaginal opening at the time of delivery of the fetal head. It is performed when the baby’s head is crowning (visible 3-4 cm). Options for pain relief during the procedure include local injection of an anesthetic such as lidocaine, epidural anesthesia, intravenous narcotics, or local nerve block. [...]

September 6, 2011 More
Environment

Environment

The effects of the environment on health have long been recognized. In the United States, industrial growth and increasing urban population centers in the mid-19th century resulted in concern about the water supply and sewage management. Furthermore, increasing use of coal-burning furnaces and the subsequent soot and cinders in the air led to public fear [...]

September 5, 2011 More
Energy Healing

Energy Healing

There are many popular holistic modalities that work with the human energy system. One of the underlying principles they share is the belief that all living things have an energy field that surrounds them that is essential to life. Different cultures refer to this life force as chi (China) or prana (India) or ki ( [...]

September 5, 2011 More
Endometriosis

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is the presence of tissue, which should exist only inside the uterus (endometrial glands and endometrial stroma), at sites outside the uterus. This disease affects many women in the reproductive age group, and chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis is one of the most common symptom complexes that gynecologists are required to treat. Although [...]

September 5, 2011 More
Endometrial Polyps

Endometrial Polyps

Endometrial polyps are noncancerous (benign) growths found within the uterine cavity. Usually they are asymptomatic and remain undetectable for decades. In women without symptoms, they are often found coincidentally when pelvic ultrasound is performed for unrelated problems. However, in women with abnormal uterine bleeding, investigation of the bleeding may lead to their detection. The symptoms [...]

September 5, 2011 More
Education

Education

This entry will address both education and literacy since they are closely linked concepts, albeit with very different meanings. The MerriamWebster Dictionary defines education as “the action or process of providing schooling for” or “to train by formal instruction and supervised practice especially in a skill, trade, or profession.” Literacy is defined as the quality [...]

September 5, 2011 More
Edema

Edema

Edema, commonly referred to as swelling, is a widespread finding with multiple potential etiologies. Weight gain generally occurs prior to edema formation as the body’s total water stores increase. In most cases, edema first occurs symmetrically in the lower extremities. This is due to gravity’s role in increasing the hydrostatic (fluid) pressure in the lower [...]

September 1, 2011 More
Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the blastocyst (embryo) implants at locations other than the endometrium, or lining of the uterine cavity. The most common site of occurrence is in the fallopian tube. Other sites include the cervix, the cornual portion of the uterus, the ovary, and the abdominal cavity. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy has been [...]

September 1, 2011 More
Eating Disorders

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders (ED) are classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) on the basis of symptom clusters, characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and excessive concern about body shape or weight. Patients generally deny symptoms, are reluctant to seek help despite significant medical and psychiatric comorbidity, and are [...]

September 1, 2011 More