Category: Coronary Risk Factor

Coronary Risk Factors

Coronary Risk Factors

Despite many recent advances in therapy, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the major contributor to death and premature disability in developed countries. This condition accounts for one third of all deaths in women. Furthermore, it is predicted that cardiovascular disease (CvD), due mainly to atherosclerosis (disease of the arteries), will become the leading cause of [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Hypertension

Hypertension

Considerable data from epidemiological studies support a link between hypertension (high blood pressure) and atherosclerosis. This makes hypertension the most prevalent of risk factors with over 80 million Americans defined as having high blood pressure (traditionally defined as a reading of 140/90 mm Hg as measured with a blood pressure cuff). Prevalence of hypertension is [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Lipid disorders

Lipid disorders

Perhaps the most well-established and well-studied risk factors for CHD are abnormalities in blood cholesterol and lipid levels. The typical diet consumed in Western societies contains between 50 and 100 g of fat and 0.5 g of cholesterol. These fats are not water soluble and are transported in the blood in association with lipoproteins. Abnormalities [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Diabetes mellitus and the Metabolic syndrome

Diabetes mellitus and the Metabolic syndrome

Diabetes mellitus, a condition marked by fasting blood glucose (sugar) levels of 126 mg/dl or higher, is not only a well-established risk factor for CHD but also a disease that is becoming more prevalent at an alarming rate. This is largely due to the increasing prevalence of obesity as well as the aging of the [...]

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Smoking

Smoking

Cigarette smoking is the most important preventable risk factor for CHD. It remains the major preventable cause of early death, disability, and health expense in the United States accounting for over 400,000 deaths each year. Estimates suggest that 11% of deaths in women are attributable to smoking and that one in four women smoke. The [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Obesity and sedentary lifestyle

Obesity and sedentary lifestyle

Obesity is a risk factor for coronary artery disease and one particular type of obesity is a particular indicator of risk in women. This is the so-termed “male fat pattern” of weight distribution which is characterized by weight that is mostly distributed around the trunk. A good measure of this is the waist-to-hip ratio with [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Homocysteine

Homocysteine

Homocysteine is a naturally produced chemical in the body which may accumulate in the blood as a result of genetic abnormalities in certain enzymes or due to deficiencies in the vitamin folic acid. Data show a link between elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood and the risk of abnormal clotting (thrombosis), as well as [...]

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Inflammation

Much effort has been expended toward finding a possible infectious cause for the coronary artery disease. While there are no convincing data linking any specific microbe to an elevated risk of coronary artery disease, it is widely accepted that inflammation plays an important role in the atherosclerotic process. For this reason, blood levels of markers [...]

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Sudden cardiac death and risk factors

Sudden cardiac death and risk factors

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is defined as death within 1 hour of onset of symptoms. While SCD is more common in men than women, it is still a considerable public health problem with 120,000 cases occurring annually. Analysis from the Nurses’ Health Study shows that 69% of women who suffered Sudden cardiac death had no [...]

August 15, 2011 More