Category: C

Child Custody

Child Custody

Child custody means the legal responsibility for a child. When the parents of a child are married and live with the child, questions of child custody are rare. But when parents separate from each other or divorce, or when parents live separately from their child, there is often a question as to who has custody [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Child Care

Child Care

The decision to use child care is an important issue to consider prior to working or obtaining further education for parents/guardians. other issues for consideration include general health and personality of the child/children, number of children to be enrolled in child care, hours child care will be needed, and distance to be traveled for child [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Child abuse

Child abuse

Child abuse or maltreatment occurs in many settings and places around the world. There are various kinds of abuse, and many times a child is the victim of more than one type of maltreatment. The spectrum of maltreatment includes physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Issues of child labor and exploitation, lack of [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Chest Pain

Chest Pain

Chest pain is one of the cardinal manifestations of heart disease. However, chest pain can also occur due to various other disease states. It is very important for the patient and physician alike to differentiate chest pain due to cardiac causes from that due to noncardiac etiologies. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF CARDIAC CHEST PAIN Quality Cardiac [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Chemical Dependence

Chemical Dependence

Chemical dependence is a primarily genetic, chronic progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by the intermittent inconsistent loss of control over the use of mood-altering drugs, resulting in repetitive adverse consequences to the user. The basic brain problem of this disease of chemical dependence or “addiction” appears to be an inability to consistently [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Charismatic Healers

Charismatic Healers

For more than 2,000 years, charismatic healers have been healing people from mental, physical, and spiritual sickness. Common methodology used by charismatic healers includes: praying, laying of hands, anointing with oil, Biblical scripture, exorcisms, sacraments, and pilgrimages to holy places. However, specific methodology of healing can vary according to the beliefs of a denomination. Charismatic [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Cesarean Section

Cesarean Section

Cesarean section is the name of the abdominal operation used to deliver a baby. The most recent birth statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveal that 24.4% of the 4 million births in the United States in 2001 were by cesarean section, meaning that 1 million cesarean sections were performed in [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer

Cancer of the uterine cervix is an important worldwide health problem. The cervix is the opening of the uterus at the top of the vagina. Death rates in the developing countries from this disease are similar to death rates from breast cancer and lung cancer. In the developed nations, the widespread use of screening tests [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Cataract

Cataract

A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s natural lens. Depending on the degree of cloudiness, a cataract can cause a little blur in vision to near total loss of vision. The rate at which a cataract will progress is highly variable. A cataract is not a film over the eye that can be peeled [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

The carpal tunnel is formed within a bracelet of small bones located at the top of the wrist and a tough fibrous tissue known as the transverse carpal ligament located on the underside of the wrist. The median nerve and the tendons that flex and extend the fingers pass through this small tunnel. Carpal tunnel [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Calcium

Calcium

Calcium is an important component of bones and teeth. The calcium in bone is constantly removed and replaced, so getting enough calcium is important to maintain strong bones. Calcium is absorbed in the stomach and small bowel, but only about 25% of ingested calcium is absorbed. About half of all adults do not get the [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death and disability for U.S. women—43.3% of all female deaths occur from Cardiovascular disease. Overall, one in five women have some form of Cardiovascular disease, but this proportion varies depending on age: only one in seven women have Cardiovascular disease at ages 45-64 years but almost one [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Menopause and hormonal therapy

Menopause and hormonal therapy

Menopause is associated with a severe decline in estrogen levels that may worsen cardiac risk factors. Premenopausal women who had bilateral resection of their ovaries and did not receive estrogen therapy had twice the risk of myocardial infarction than those who took estrogen. Although menopausal hormone therapy was previously considered cardioprotective, a recently completed trial, [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Pregnancy and heart disease

Pregnancy and heart disease

Pregnancy imposes a 30-50% increase in the amount of blood pumped by the mother’s heart to the uterus and the baby, especially after second trimester. Labor imposes extra effort on the heart because of large changes in the circulating blood volume. Normally, this increase in heart activity is well tolerated by the mother. However, certain [...]

August 3, 2011 More
Women and valvular heart disease

Women and valvular heart disease

Women have a higher incidence of mitral valve prolapse than men. However, most studies suggest that men are more likely to develop mitral regurgitation, the main complication associated with mitral valve prolapse. If mitral valve prolapse is associated with mitral regurgitation (backflow of blood through the mitral valve of the heart), guidelines recommend antibiotic prophylaxis [...]

August 2, 2011 More
Cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in women

Cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in women

Sudden death can be the first manifestation of Coronary artery disease in women. Because Coronary artery disease is often the cause of sudden death, women develop this usually 10-20 years later than men in a pattern following the development of Coronary artery disease. However, female survivors of cardiac arrest are less likely to have underlying [...]

August 2, 2011 More

Stroke in women

The incidence of stroke increases with age. Because the average life expectancy is higher in women, each year 40,000 more women develop strokes than men. The long-term survival after stroke is better in women than men. Women make up to 60% of total deaths from stroke. Black women have higher death rates from stroke (78.1%) [...]

August 2, 2011 More
Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension

Normally, the pressure in the lung circulation is five times lower than blood pressure in the arteries. Any abnormal elevation in the arterial or venous pulmonary pressures can lead to pulmonary hypertension (elevated pressure in the lung circulation). Pulmonary hypertension is a multifactorial disease causing breathlessness on exertion, fatigue, and hypoxemia (lowered oxygen levels in [...]

August 2, 2011 More

Autoimmune diseases of connective tissue and cardiovascular involvement

Connective tissue disorders are a cluster of autoimmune diseases in which antibodies are generated against certain cell proteins (part of connective tissue), which trigger a potent inflammatory response that particularly involves the arterial wall. Thus, cardiovascular involvement is very common in these patients. Because the autoimmune processes are stimulated by the high levels of estrogen [...]

August 2, 2011 More

Capacity

In the health care and legal settings, the term “capacity” is often used with respect to mental competence and the ability to make an informed decision regarding one’s health care, personal matters, financial affairs, or legal matters. With respect to our youth, capacity is defined by age, and a minor is considered legally incapacitated until [...]

August 2, 2011 More