Category: C

Curie, Marie

Curie, Marie

Marie Curie lived from 1867 to 1934 and made enormous contributions to science. She won two Nobel Prizes (in 1903 for physics and in 1911 for chemistry) and had a daughter, Irene, who also won this high honor of science in 1935. Born in Warsaw during the time that Poland was under Russian rule, Marya [...]

August 17, 2011 More
Curanderos

Curanderos

During colonial Spain, curanderos emerged as spiritual and physical healers. The word curandero comes from the Spanish word “curar,” which means to heal. Curanderismo, healing by curanderos, is a combination of Greek medicine, Judeo-Christianity, European witchcraft, ancient Arabic medicine, and Indian herbal medicine. With roots throughout Latin America, curanderos have significantly shaped the role of [...]

August 17, 2011 More
Crystal Methamphetamine

Crystal Methamphetamine

Crystal methamphetamine, also known as “meth,” “crystal,” “crank,” “glass,” “ice,” and “speed,” is a powerful stimulant that can be inhaled, injected, smoked, or taken orally. Methamphetamine is the most potent in the class of stimulant drugs called amphetamines. Chemically similar to epinephrine (adrenaline), amphetamines are synthetic drugs that produce stimulation of the central nervous system, [...]

August 17, 2011 More
Couples Therapy

Couples Therapy

All individuals have a basic need to form attachments and develop meaningful relationships. At the same time, we also have a basic need to be separate and develop our individual potential. Balancing these conflicting needs is the central issue of intimate relationships and helping couples establish or reestablish that balance is the central issue for [...]

August 17, 2011 More
Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery (also called plastic surgery) is used both to correct true deformities and improve undesirable appearances. In our culture, there is a tremendous emphasis placed on our personal appearance, both in the workforce and in social situations. Television and magazines play a large role in this by showing mostly young, thin people who do [...]

August 16, 2011 More
Coronary Risk Factors

Coronary Risk Factors

Despite many recent advances in therapy, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the major contributor to death and premature disability in developed countries. This condition accounts for one third of all deaths in women. Furthermore, it is predicted that cardiovascular disease (CvD), due mainly to atherosclerosis (disease of the arteries), will become the leading cause of [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary Artery Disease

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in this country, claiming the lives of over half a million women each year. Women present with coronary heart disease (CHD) events on average 10 years later than men, but have a steady rise in the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) or “heart attacks” as [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Cori, Gerty

Cori, Gerty

Gerty Cori discovered her interest in biochemistry during her first year of medical school. At that time, however, she probably never imagined this interest would culminate in the honor of being the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Gerty Cori was born Gerty Theresa Radnitz in Prague, Czechoslovakia (now [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Constipation

Constipation

Constipation is a condition in which the waste matter in the bowels is too hard to pass easily, or in which movements are so infrequent that discomfort or uncomfortable symptoms result. It also refers to a sense of incomplete evacuation. There is no right number of daily or weekly bowel movements. Regularity may mean bowel [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Conservatorship

Conservatorship

Ordinarily the person who will be most directly affected by any specific decision about health care, finances, residential issues, or other personal matters is the person who gets to make that choice. There may be times, however, when the individual is not intellectually and emotionally capable of making and announcing difficult personal decisions. In those [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive Heart Failure

Heart failure is an increasingly common disease because of the improved survival rates of patients after coronary heart disease events. About 4.6 million persons are being treated for heart failure in the United States, and 550,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. The prevalence of heart failure increases with age; approximately 80% of all heart [...]

August 15, 2011 More
Confidentiality

Confidentiality

In the course of providing care, health care professionals routinely learn very personal, intimate information about their patients. As professionals, they begin with a fiduciary or trust duty to hold in confidence all personal patient information entrusted to them. This ethical obligation is enforced legally through civil damage suits based on both statutory and common [...]

August 11, 2011 More
Condoms

Condoms

Condoms are one of the oldest forms of contraception and the best recognized forms of protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The continued high prevalence of STIs has resulted in a substantial increase in condom use over the past decades. The 1995 report from the National Survey of Family Growth [...]

August 11, 2011 More
Comstock Laws

Comstock Laws

In 1873, the U.S. Congress passed what became known as the “Comstock” laws. The act made it illegal to import, mail, or transport in interstate commerce obscene materials, including contraceptive devices and information on birth control. The act was named after Anthony Comstock, a Union Army veteran of the American Civil War. He also assisted [...]

August 11, 2011 More
Complementary and Alternative Health Practices

Complementary and Alternative Health Practices

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of health-related practices that are generally viewed as falling outside of mainstream medicine. Complementary and alternative medicine is the term currently utilized by the National Institutes of Health. However, semantics used to describe this area of medicine can often be confusing. The term that people are most [...]

August 11, 2011 More

Comfort Women

Sexual exploitation has always been a part of war. However, the Japanese military not only exploited women sexually, but also actually enslaved them. Hundreds of thousands of women were either tricked or forced into sexual slavery during the Japanese occupation of Korea, from 1910 to 1945, and during World War II. These women were called [...]

August 11, 2011 More
Colposcopy

Colposcopy

Colposcopy is the examination of the female genitals (cervix, vagina, or vulva) with an instrument called a colposcope. It is usually done to evaluate any lesions suspected of representing abnormal tissue growth or cancer. This may be an abnormal Pap smear or any lesion which does not resolve spontaneously in a reasonable amount of time [...]

August 8, 2011 More
Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

The lifetime risk of developing colon cancer is about 60% and is slightly higher in men than in women. Half of those affected persons will die of the disease. It is rare before the age of 50 years and the incidence increases thereafter. Death caused by colon cancer has decreased over the last 20 years. [...]

August 8, 2011 More
Screening for colon cancer

Screening for colon cancer

Screening for colon cancer can be done in many ways. The choice of which screening is best for the patient should be based on his/her preferences and the available resources for testing and follow-up. The physician or health care provider should explain the benefits and potential risks associated with each option before deciding on the [...]

August 8, 2011 More
If i need to have a sigmoidoscopy, what should i expect?

If i need to have a sigmoidoscopy, what should i expect?

The actual sigmoidoscope is between 60 and 70 cm long. It is a flexible tube, especially the first few inches where the light is located. Within the scope there are channels for air to be put into the patient to open up the colon. There is a suction channel to pull out extra fluid and [...]

August 8, 2011 More