Category: B

Byrne, Ethel

Ethel Byrne, along with her sister Margaret Sanger, founded the first birth control clinic in the United States in 1916. Ethel and Margaret grew up in Corning, New York. Their mother, Anne, suffered from tuberculosis. Contraception, in addition to being illegal, was unheard of in the girls’ devout Catholic neighborhood. Anne became pregnant eighteen times [...]

August 2, 2011 More
Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia Nervosa

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), eating disorders can be classified as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (ED-NOS). BN is characterized by recurrent episodes of “out of control” or binge eating, occurring on average at least twice a week for 3 [...]

August 2, 2011 More
Breast Reduction

Breast Reduction

There is a lot of emphasis placed on the size of women’s breasts. Most of the time, the emphasis is focused on enlarging the size of the breasts. However, large breasts can be equally difficult for women. Usually the problem begins in early adolescence when puberty begins or after pregnancy, particularly when a woman has [...]

August 2, 2011 More
Breast Reconstruction

Breast Reconstruction

Breast cancer can be an extremely devastating disease. One in every seven women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. There are many options that are available for treating breast cancer. The emphasis over the last decade has leaned toward breast conservation. However, there are times when a mastectomy is the only option. This leaves [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Breast Lumps

Breast Lumps

A woman’s breast is composed internally of multiple glandular lobules and ducts surrounded by fatty tissue, and therefore by the nature of its design is often of lobular texture. Most women notice irregularities or lumps in their breast from time to time. Fortunately, the overwhelming majority of these breast lumps (80-90%) are benign. Despite this, [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Breast-Feeding

Breast-Feeding

Human breast milk is now widely acknowledged to be the most complete form of nutrition for infants, with a range of physiological and psychological benefits for both the infant and mother. Through the ages, humans have been dependent on it for its sustenance and even contraceptive attributes. Research supports the observation of benefits for infants’ [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Cautions about breast-feeding

Cautions about breast-feeding

Human milk provides the most complete form of nutrition for infants, including premature and sick newborns, with rare exception. When direct breast-feeding is not possible, expressed milk should be provided. In cases of maternal infection, the basic tenet is that breast-feeding is rarely contraindicated. The few exceptions are situations where infectious agents may be associated [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Reproductive function during lactation

Reproductive function during lactation

It is helpful to know that the elevation of prolactin, and the abrupt withdrawal of ovarian and gonadotrophin hormones after childbirth and during lactation may lead to decreased breast sensitivity during lovemaking, vaginal epithelium atrophy, dryness, and decreased cervical mucus as well. These changes may, in turn, lead to discomfort during sexual intercourse and increase [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Postpartum and beyond

Postpartum and beyond

In the first few days of breast-feeding, immediately after delivery and before the mature milk comes in, a thick, yellowish liquid known as colostrum is produced in small quantities and secreted from the nipples. Yet this “premilk” is sufficient to nourish the baby, satisfy the baby, and protect the baby from jaundice and many infectious [...]

August 1, 2011 More

Trends and practices

From the dawn of civilization women have entertained the use of special feeding flasks, wet nurses, and mixed concoctions of animal milk as alternate methods to nurture infants. Uninformed concerns about maternal beauty, nobility, and the etiquette of the wealthy fueled many of these practices. In the mid-1900s, when most advances in science were perceived [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Breast Examination

Breast Examination

A breast examination is a simple means of detecting changes in breast tissue. There are two kinds of examinations, self-exam and clinical exam. The goal of these procedures is early detection of breast cancer because early treatment can increase survival rates. Breast cancer is not only the most common non-skin cancer in women, but is [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Over 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, and this number is expected to increase significantly over the next decade as more women will be living in the age-at-risk group. One out of eight women will be diagnosed in their lifetime, and at least 40,000 will die of the disease each year. Most [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Breast Augmentation

Breast Augmentation

Over the last few decades, there has been a great deal of emphasis placed on the shape and size of women’s breasts. Many women sometimes wish that their breasts were larger and for that reason seek breast enlargement or augmentation mammoplasty. Women have diverse reasons for wanting to augment their breasts. Breast augmentation involves using [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Body Mass

Body Mass

Index Obesity is an important risk factor for many illnesses, especially heart disease and diabetes. However, body weight alone is not the best way to determine whether an individual is overweight. Whether the number of pounds a person carries is healthy or not depends on one’s height and the amount of fat compared to the [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Body Image

Body Image

Cultural perception of the perfect female shape has varied over time from a full-figured fertility goddess and rounded Rubenesque figure to the pencil thin Twiggy and Ally McBeal. In Third World countries, women who are heavier are associated with high social status and having money to buy food, while the Western world worships thinness. Many [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Blackwell, Elizabeth

Blackwell, Elizabeth

Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman awarded a medical degree in the United States, was born February 3, 1821, in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. Hannah and Samuel Blackwell had nine children, of which Elizabeth was the third. Elizabeth’s father was a highly prosperous sugar refiner and the Blackwell children, even the girls, were privately tutored. In 1831 [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Birth Control

Birth Control

Contraception is defined as the use of medications, devices, surgery, or sexual timing or practices to voluntarily avoid unintended pregnancy and to space childbirth. Birth control, family planning, fertility control, pregnancy prevention, and planned parenthood are other terms used for contraception. A general medical or gynecological health exam for girls and women of reproductive age [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive disorder, is a type of mood disorder, which occurs in approximately 1% of the population. This rate of occurrence is consistent across groups of diverse ethnicity and culture. In general, bipolar disorder is a long-term illness with an episodic and variable course. Unlike major depressive disorder that is significantly [...]

August 1, 2011 More

General treatment recommendations

The goal of treatment in bipolar disorder is complete remission of symptoms with a return to baseline level of health and functioning. Unfortunately, at this time, there is no “cure” for bipolar disorder, but it is entirely possible for individuals with bipolar illness to experience long periods of freedom from symptoms or with minimal recurrence [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Binge Eating Disorder

Binge Eating Disorder

Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as vomiting or excessive use of diuretics and laxatives. Currently, it falls under the category of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). An individual [...]

August 1, 2011 More