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Pelvic Organ prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition denoting the descent of pelvic organs toward or through the vaginal opening. References to prolapse of the womb have first been made in ancient Egypt dating back to 1550 BC. Vaginal vault prolapse refers to significant descent of the vaginal apex (“the top of the vagina”) following a hysterectomy. [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Pelvic Examination

Pelvic Examination

The pelvic examination is the most important part of the overall gynecologic exam. While the examiner must think about the whole patient, the purpose of the pelvic exam is to screen for abnormalities of the cervix, pelvic masses, including abnormalities of the patient’s uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries as well as observing any abnormalities in [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Peer Relationships

Peer Relationships

Peer relationships are among the most influential means of support for people of all ages and have critical implications for social behavior and development. Among the most commonly referenced peer relationships are friendships. Friendships are voluntary relationships that are rooted in common interests and experiences. In childhood, friendships contribute to the acquisition of social competencies [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Pedophilia

Pedophilia

The sexual molestation of a child is considered by many to be the most morally reprehensible act imaginable. The terms pedophile, child molester, perpetrator, and sex offender are often used interchangeably; they overlap and yet refer to distinct aspects of the behavior and the people who commit sexual acts with children. “Perpetrator” and “sex offender” [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Patients’ Rights

Patients’ Rights

The mystique of medicine and technology combined with an innate desire to maintain the well-being of our bodies has led us to grant a tremendous amount of power to both health care providers and the insurance industry. Health care providers carry an acquired knowledge of corporeal mechanics and the insurance industry holds the purse strings [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Parks, Rosa

Parks, Rosa

On December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks climbed on board the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, she had no way of knowing that her actions that day would change a world, and later result in her being considered one of the founders of the civil rights movement. Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley on February [...]

September 21, 2011 More
Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown cause, which typically affects people in middle to late life. Named for Dr. James Parkinson, who first described the disease over 180 years ago, Parkinson’s disease needs to be distinguished from Parkinsonism, a descriptive term applied to various features of the disease. Parkinsonism applies to [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Parenting

Parenting

Parenting is a relatively new word about a very old topic—raising children. Parenting can be done by one or both biological parents, by adoptive parents, or by any other person who informally takes the place of a parent. The goal of parenting is to raise children to be happy, healthy adults who can think for [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Pap Test

Pap Test

The Pap test, also called “Pap smear,” was developed over fifty years ago. This test, in which cells are removed from the cervix and evaluated through a microscope, has dramatically decreased the number of cervical cancer deaths in this country. The Pap test can detect precancerous and cancerous changes of the cervix, allowing early detection [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Panic Attack

Panic Attack

A panic attack is intense fear in the absence of real danger, which lasts for a period of time (usually 10-30 minutes) and then stops. The fear is accompanied by at least four of the following symptoms: (a) heart racing, pounding, or skipping beats, (b) sweating, (c) trembling or shaking, (d) difficulty breathing, (e) feeling [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Pain

Pain

Persons perceive pain when their internal environment is threatened. Threats may occur from a variety of sources. Pain receptors are present in the skin, connective tissue, blood vessels, bony surface, and most organs. A major exception is the brain where pain is sensed rather than originated. Stimuli exiting these pain receptors travel from distant surfaces [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Pacemaker Therapy

Pacemaker Therapy

The heart is a unique structure in the human body in that it combines both mechanical and electrical properties in the same cell. Normal electrical function in the heart includes the firing of a dominant pacemaker, an area of heart tissue that initiates heartbeat. The dominant pacemaker is usually in the area of the heart [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Ovarian Cyst

Ovarian Cyst

An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac that can occur within or on the surface of the ovary. Many women will develop an ovarian cyst at some time during their lives. Most cysts are benign (not cancerous), not dangerous, resolve on their own, and require no treatment. Ovarian cysts are generally painless, causing discomfort only [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Fluorescent Stained ovarian carcinoma cells

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer refers to a heterogeneous (diverse) group of diseases. The most common form of ovarian cancer, the epithelial ovarian cancers, tends to occur in women after the age of 50. This type of ovarian cancer was highly publicized with the diagnosis and death of actress and comedienne, Gilda Radner. it is this form of [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Osteoporosis and Osteopenia

Osteoporosis and Osteopenia

Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass and reduced bone strength, with increased risk of fractures. The term osteopenia means low bone mass, which is one aspect of osteoporosis. Osteopenia is often used to describe a mild form of osteoporosis because osteoporosis is diagnosed primarily by low bone density. Several [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis in the United States, affecting 15.8 million Americans. More than 15% of women over the age of 80 have symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability and thus has a significant economic impact. Although there is no cure [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Oral Health

Oral Health

This entry focuses on oral health during pregnancy. The imbalance of female sex hormones during pregnancy has been implicated in changes in the oral cavity. Many of the changes can be minimized or prevented with good oral hygiene and regular oral health care. PREGNANCY GINGIVITIS Gingival (gum) changes become noticeable from the second month of [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Oral Contraception

Oral Contraception

Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) are either combined estrogen and progestin or progestin-only formulations that prevent conception. Estrogen is the female hormone secreted by the ovary in the first half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone is the hormone produced by the ovary in the second half of the cycle. The pill’s estrogens and progestins (substances [...]

September 20, 2011 More

Oophorectomy

Oophorectomy, also called ovariectomy, is the surgical removal of one or both ovaries. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 491,000 oophorectomies and salpingo-oophorectomies (surgical removal of the fallopian tubes along with the ovaries) were performed in the United States in the year 1998. Removal of the ovaries is often done along [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Oligomenorrhea

Oligomenorrhea

Oligomenorrhea is infrequent menstrual bleeding that occurs at intervals greater than 5 weeks or 35 days. Normal menstrual bleeding occurs every 28 days with a normal range of 21-35 days. The duration of flow is 4.5 days with a range of 2-7 days. Normal blood loss at menses is 35 ml with a range of [...]

September 20, 2011 More