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Shingles

Shingles

The pathogenesis (cause) of shingles sounds like science fiction—a virus that causes a common childhood illness lies dormant for 50 or 60 years and then produces a different illness that can lead to severe, lifelong pain. Shingles, or herpes zoster, is caused by a relapse of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV); acute infection with this virus [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Shamans

Shamans

Since early civilization, shamans have been integral in the healing process. The term shaman is derived from “saman,” a Russian term which refers to one that uses ecstasy techniques. Shamankas, which are female shamans, and shamans use ecstasy techniques to act as a channel between the spiritual and physical worlds. During a connection with the [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, refer to a variety of bacterial, viral, and other infections acquired through sexual contact. Sexually Transmitted Diseases are common reasons for visits to clinics and physicians’ offices. Sexually Transmitted Diseases produce significant morbidity and are estimated to cost the health care system billions of dollars each year. Sexually Transmitted Diseases [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sexual Organs

Sexual Organs

The female sexual or reproductive organs may be categorized into the internal pelvic organs, the external genitalia, and the outside organs. Changes in the size and function of these organs occur throughout a woman’s reproductive life. The most dramatic changes in the size and function of the female reproductive organs occur at puberty and during [...]

September 27, 2011 More
Sexual Harassment

Sexual Harassment

The 20th century has seen a drastic increase in the number of women in the workforce. This influx of women into the workforce helps explain an increase of sexual harassment in the workplace. In 2002, there were 14,396 charges of sexual harassment filed with the appropriate state and federal authorities. This is a 37% increase [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Sexual Dysfunction

Sexual Dysfunction

Sexual function The study of sexual function in women, while still in its infancy, has evolved beyond early conceptualizations that focused on mystery and possible associations with witchcraft to psychological explanations that developed in the 19th and 20th centuries. The psychiatric evolution came to fruition in the 20th century with Freudian theories where treatment centered [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Sexual Abuse

Sexual Abuse

One out of four women will be sexually assaulted in her lifetime. Since the 1970s, the general public has been exposed to information and education regarding the prevalence of sexual violence against women and children, the lasting effects of sexual trauma, and the development of rape crisis programs. In the 1980s, the United States saw [...]

September 26, 2011 More

Self-Injurious Behavior

Although mental health professionals have yet to establish a universally accepted definition of self-injurious behavior (SIB), the term generally encompasses any intentional, nonsuicidal act upon one’s own body that results in organ or tissue damage. Notably, acts embodied in cultural practices or rituals that are shared by many members of a given society and may [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Seizures

Seizures

Epileptic seizures are episodic and sudden attacks that impair some aspect of a person’s function. These attacks consist of an alteration of one or more spheres of the brain functions such as sensory perception, motor activity, autonomic control, and level of consciousness. Epileptic seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges occurring in the brain. There [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a cycling and atypical mood disorder in which the symptoms get worse in winter when there are shortened days with lessened sunlight in temperate climates. It affects women more than men (about 80% are women) and is more common than one might expect with a prevalence of 1-3% of adults. [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy is a form of treatment for spider veins and varicose veins. Spider veins, or telangiectasias, are small red to blue veins which may appear in up to 50% of women. Varicose veins are larger, blue or purple in color, and may cause pain, throbbing, or burning. The incidence of varicose veins increases as people [...]

September 26, 2011 More

Scleroderma

Scleroderma is a group of diseases that involve abnormal growth of connective tissue, which is the “glue” made of proteins and cells that holds the cells of the body together and gives the skin and organs their shape. In some people, scleroderma affects the skin, causing it to become tight and hard. In others, it [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world’s population. Contrary to popular opinion, schizophrenia is not a “split personality.” Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder in which individuals experience disturbances in thinking and behavior. People with schizophrenia have a higher risk of suicide, and approximately 10% of all people with schizophrenia commit [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Sanger, Margaret

Sanger, Margaret

Margaret Sanger, America’s birth control pioneer, was instrumental in the defeat of “Comstock” laws that made it a crime to distribute information about contraceptive techniques. Sanger and her sister, Ethel Byrne, were both imprisoned several times for violations of Comstock laws. She coined the phrase “birth control” after noticing that in countries with lower birth [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Safer Sex

Safer Sex

Sexual contact is the most common route of transmission of HIV in women. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 50%, or 19.2 million, of the 38.6 million adults living with HIV or AIDS worldwide are women. Furthermore, the majority of women who were reported with AIDS were infected through heterosexual exposure [...]

September 26, 2011 More

Rural Health

Women represent over half (52%) of the 60 million people who live in rural and frontier areas in the United States. In recent years, the image of rural life as simple, healthy, and natural has been replaced with a more complex understanding in which distinct physiological stresses, physical hardships, and community patterns of rural life [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Rubella

Rubella

Rubella is commonly referred to as German measles or 3-day measles. This disease is a common and relatively mild disease of childhood. The disease is caused by an RNA virus (genus: Rubivirus, family: Togaviridae) and humans are the only known host. Rubella is passed by secretions; nasopharyngeal, blood, stool, or urine. The virus can be [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Rosacea

Rosacea

Rosacea is a common facial skin condition that most frequently affects fair-skinned Caucasian women and men of northern European ancestry. While the precise etiology (cause) of rosacea is unknown, it is probably due to some combination of factors in predisposed individuals resulting in an abnormality of the blood supply to the skin (cutaneous vasculature). The [...]

September 26, 2011 More
Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which the joints are the primary target of progressive inflammation and destruction. This disease affects about 1% of the U.S. population and is nearly three times more common in women than men. It can occur at any age and tends to increase in frequency with age. However, [...]

September 26, 2011 More

Rh Disease

Rh disease is known as hemolytic (having to do with the blood) disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis). Rh refers to the Rh system (antigen groups include C, D, E) on blood cells and specifically the D-antigen. Rh disease develops when antibodies form in an individual with Rh-negative (lack of D-antigen) blood after exposure to [...]

September 26, 2011 More