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Liposuction

Liposuction

Today, there is a great deal of pressure on women to conform to an ideal look and body proportion. But no matter how hard they diet and exercise, many women cannot reach this goal. There are areas of fat deposits that just do not seem to disappear. Looking for a solution to this problem, some [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Light Therapy

Light Therapy

Light therapy, also referred to as phototherapy, has been a unique form of treatment for individuals suffering from a depressive disorder that has seasonal patterns. In the majority of cases, these individuals develop an episode of depression in the fall or winter with remission of the episode in the spring. Light therapy requires that the [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy

The mortality experience of a population can be summed up by the measure of life expectancy, which is the average age at death for a hypothetical group of people born in a particular year and being subjected to the risks of death experienced by people of all ages in that year. It is the average [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Libido and Desire

Libido and Desire

Few people can forget the impassioned romance between Julie Christie (Lara) and Omar Sharif (Yuri) in the film Doctor Zhivago, the palpable sexual tension between Kathleen Turner and William Hurt in Body Heat, or the fervent desire expressed by Meg Ryan while faking an orgasm in When Harry Met Sally. Anais Nin’s (1990) erotic stories [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Lesbian Ethics

Lesbian Ethics

A branch of ethics that cultivates the development of individual moral agency and integrity, lesbian ethics distinguishes itself from the focus on social control of traditional ethics. The centerpiece of the theoretical framework is that lesbians are oppressed in all societies. It also acknowledges that lesbians are agents of oppression, because sanctioned moral choices in [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Lesbian

Lesbian

There is no standard definition of lesbian. The term generally refers to a female sexual orientation that may involve one or more of the following components: behavioral, affective, or cognitive understandings of lesbian. The behavioral definition of lesbian emphasizes current or lifetime sexual activity with other women. The affective definition considers the subtleties of sexual [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Laxatives

Laxatives

A laxative is a medicine that loosens the bowel contents and encourages evacuation. A laxative with a mild or gentle effect on the bowel is known as an aperient; and one with a strong effect is known as a cathartic or purgative. Laxatives facilitate evacuation by increasing the stool volume and stimulating the large intestinal [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Latinos

Latinos

As of 2011, Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, outnumbering even African Americans. There are over 32 million Latinos in the United States, with an average age of 25 years. To put this into perspective, approximately one in eight people in the United States is Latino, which places the United States [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is a medical procedure which can be utilized to treat a variety of gynecological disorders. A small tube (endoscope) is introduced into the affected organ. The medical practitioner can visualize the organ, and if indicated, perform surgery/treatments via the endoscope. Laparoscopy is often done to diagnose (by direct visualization) and treat the common condition [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Lactation

Lactation

Producing milk follows pregnancy and birth as inevitably and naturally as pregnancy follows conception. It is a normal function in all mammals and each species produces milk, which is the best specific food for its own newborn. During pregnancy, under the influence of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, the female breast undergoes noticeable changes. [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Labor and Delivery

Labor and Delivery

The process by which a child is born is both simple and intricate. From the moment of conception, it is inevitable that the growing fetus will need to develop, grow, and eventually pass from its uterine environment either by a vaginal delivery or a cesarean section delivery. The cardinal signs of labor or mechanisms of [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Kleptomania

Kleptomania

Kleptomania, the impulsive and irresistible urge to steal, may have been described as early as 370 AD by St. Augustine when he wrote in Confessions “Yet I lusted to thieve and did it compelled by no hunger, nor poverty.” The term “kleptomania” is derived from the Greek words klepto meaning to steal and mania meaning [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Keloids

Keloids

Keloids are a benign skin tumor characterized by excessive proliferation of scar tissue. They usually arise at sites of trauma or prior surgery, but occasionally arise spontaneously in areas prone to high skin tension. They develop as a result of increased activity of fibroblasts, the cell type responsible for the production of scar tissue collagen [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Kegel Exercises

Kegel Exercises

These are a series of exercises that strengthen the muscles surrounding the vagina. These exercises are easily learned and can be performed as convenient. Women who have strong vaginal muscles are less likely to suffer from urine incontinence or prolapse of the pelvic organs. Kegel exercises performed after childbirth promote healing of the vagina and [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Jacobi, Mary Putnam

Jacobi, Mary Putnam

Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842-1906) was a physician, women’s rights advocate, writer, and medical educator; she is best known for her efforts to improve education for women and to advance the status of women in the medical field. Born in London, England, on August 31, 1842, Mary Corinna Putnam was the daughter of George Palmer Putnam, [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. An international consensus of Irritable bowel syndrome specialists has defined Irritable bowel syndrome as “a combination of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms which are not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities.” Although causes of Irritable [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Iron Supplementation

Iron Supplementation

Iron is a trace mineral that is vital for life but needed only in small amounts. Iron plays an important role in oxygen transport and energy production, and because of this, iron is a vital element in the daily diet. The average adult body contains about 4 g of iron, 3 g in active form [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Intrauterine Device

Intrauterine Device

The intrauterine device (IUD) is a T-shaped plastic device that is placed into the uterine cavity. It provides a woman with a continuous method of contraception. The two types of intrauterine device currently available in the United States are the copper-releasing device (ParaGard) and the hormonereleasing device (Mirena). The intrauterine device prevents pregnancy by several [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Intersexuality

Intersexuality

Intersex is a blanket term used to describe individuals who possess bodies that the medical establishment cannot classify definitively as male or female. The occurrence is relatively frequent and is estimated at 1 in every 2,000 births. The variations can be grouped into three major categories. The first encompasses people with chromosomal configurations other than [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Insomnia

Insomnia

Sleep disturbances can have multiple causes. These can be organized into two broad areas, as primary sleep disturbances and secondary sleep disturbances. Primary sleep disturbances usually imply primary neurological sleep disorders, such as disordered breathing/breathlessness during sleep (sleep apnea), restless leg syndrome, and conditions of abnormal daytime sleepiness/”sleep attacks” (cataplexy and narcolepsy). Patients with sleep [...]

September 15, 2011 More