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Medicaid

Medicaid

Medicaid was established in 1965 through the Title XIX of the Social Security Act. This federal-state program was developed to finance health care for low-income persons, specifically the categorically needy and the medically needy. Categorically needy are those receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (now Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) and those who [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Maternal Separation

Maternal Separation

Close proximity of a mother to her infant or child is necessary for survival in humans and other mammals. The close contact promotes emotional attachment and helps to provide food, comfort, and safety. Maternal separation is just as important as close contact for the development of individuality and continued growth of the mother-child relationship. Separations [...]

September 17, 2011 More

Maternal Mortality

Deaths to women that are associated with pregnancy and childbirth fall under the category of maternal mortality. There are more than 500,000 maternal deaths each year in the world, of which almost all (98%) occur in developing nations, but even in the United States two or three women die each day of pregnancy-related causes. Regionally, [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Masturbation

Masturbation

Masturbation is self-stimulation of the genitals, energized by fantasy that leads to sexual arousal and orgasm. In addition to generating sexual desire leading to masturbation, sexual fantasies are created, refined, lustily sanctioned, and at a woman’s caprice, discarded or retained for future use. Masturbation and fantasy influence one another and are inextricably linked. Historically, masturbation [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Mastitis

Mastitis

Mastitis, by definition, is inflammation of the mammary gland. It can occur in any woman; however, it is most common in first-time lactating mothers. This condition is a result of bacterial invasion of breast tissue. Mastitis rarely occurs in the antepartum period (before birth of the baby). Its incidence includes 1-2% of primiparas (first-time mothers) [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Mastectomy

Mastectomy

Mastectomy is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of either the entire breast or a segment of the breast. Usually performed for cancer of the breast, it can also be used for prophylactic removal of the breast for women who are at high risk of developing breast cancer. Breast cancer begins as a local [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Massage

Massage

Massage is derived from the Arabic word mass meaning to press and has been defined by Westland (1993) as the aware and conscience manipulation of soft tissues of the body for therapeutic purposes. Many ancient cultures developed various systems of massage to promote health and healing. Contemporary approaches of massage have included bodywork techniques such [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Masculinity

Masculinity

Masculinity defies a simple definition. It is typically represented as a set of stereotypical characteristics that constitutes an energy, an essence, or a state of being. But in this case, the whole would appear to be greater than the sum of its parts. We recognize masculinity when it is encountered, but it is difficult to [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Marital Status

Marital Status

Sociologists refer to marital status as an achieved characteristic, in the sense that marital behavior is socially defined and influenced, rather than having any biological properties. Children are typically assumed to be single (never married), whereas adults are generally classified as being single, married, separated, divorced, or widowed, although of course people may change categories [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Marijuana

Marijuana

Marijuana or hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a plant that has been cultivated for thousands of years in various parts of the world for its fiber, seeds, medicinal, and psychoactive properties. The chemical compounds responsible for the intoxicating and therapeutic effects are found in the sticky resin released from the flowers of female plants. The marijuana [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Marianismo

Marianismo

As projected, the most recent census data have confirmed that the Latino population has become the largest ethnic minority population in the United States. The increase in population reinforces the need for a greater understanding of cultural variables that impact the provision of culturally competent services. One of these variables is the concept of marianismo. [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Mammary Glands

Mammary Glands

The mammary glands, or breasts, are actually modified sebaceous glands (sweat) that are designed to secrete milk. On average, each breast weighs 200-300 g. They are composed of glandular tissue, fat, and supporting or stromal tissue. Each breast is organized into 12-25 triangular shaped lobes. Each lobe is composed of several smaller lobules. The breast [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Mammography

Mammography

Breasts share the same basic structure. The mammary glands produce milk and are found in clusters throughout the breast. Ducts take the milk from the glands to the nipple during breastfeeding. Lymph nodes are present under the arm. The lymph nodes are small, normally bean-sized structures that help to fight infection and enlarge in the [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is an infection caused by a bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is carried around in the adult deer tick, Ixodes dammini. It begins as a slowly expanding skin rash and is associated with a tick bite or potential exposure to ticks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began surveillance for Lyme disease [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Lung Transplantation

Lung Transplantation

The field of lung transplantation has seen steady progress over the past two decades and is now widely accepted as a treatment option for end-stage lung disease. According to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), there have been approximately 10,000 lung transplants performed in the United States. Although the list of candidates for lung [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Lung Disease

Lung Disease

This entry focuses on lung disease during pregnancy. PHYSIOLOGY Hyperventilation is a characteristic feature of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the enlarging uterus causes a progressive upward displacement of the diaphragm, to a maximum of 4 cm. This displacement, however, does not impair diaphragmatic function. The diameter of the chest increases by approximately 2 cm; flaring of [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Figure 1. More males than females died over an 11 year period from lung cancer. Note the steadily increasing deaths in women over the same time period.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer, a largely incurable disease, remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among women each year in the United States, exceeding annual breast cancer mortality in women and accounting for 12% of all new female cancer cases (Table 1). Although lung cancer has always been and continues to be more prevalent in men than [...]

September 16, 2011 More
Long-Term Care

Long-Term Care

Long-term care (LTC) typically refers to settings in which individuals reside for ongoing care. Long-term care also refers to heath care needs or supervision that an individual may require for an undetermined time, or even lifelong. Long-term care can be acquired in one’s home or more typically in sheltered care or independence-supporting settings described as [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Living Wills

Living Wills

Beginning with California in the 1970s, all but a couple of states have enacted legislation regarding advance instruction directives for health care. These directives are commonly known as living wills, even though they have nothing to do with the distribution of property and deal with dying rather than living. Living will statutes often are termed [...]

September 15, 2011 More
Liver Spots

Liver Spots

Solar lentigines, also known as “liver spots,” “age spots,” or “sun spots,” are among the most common benign, pigmented lesions of the skin. These light tan to dark brown colored spots develop in areas of the greatest sun exposure of the skin, especially the face, backs of hands, forearms, and upper trunk in elderly persons. [...]

September 15, 2011 More