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Occupational Therapist

Occupational Therapist

Occupational therapy is the holistic health profession that works with individuals to attain, restore, and maintain function in daily life activities and meaningful life roles such as student, homemaker, hobbyist, and worker. The word “occupation” in the context of occupational therapy refers to activities that are valued by that individual in his or her culture. [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessions and compulsions are fairly common mental phenomena that most people have experienced, but they can become severe enough to interfere with one’s functioning. At this point they are known as a disorder. Obsessions are repeated intrusive thoughts, usually unwelcome to the thinker, and may include ideas of a harmful, violent, sexual, or religious nature. [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Obesity

Obesity

Obesity is a rapidly growing problem in the United States today, reaching epidemic proportions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, during 1999-2000, 64% of Americans were overweight or obese, with 23% actually defined as being obese (see definitions below). Thirty percent of children and adolescents during the same time period were found [...]

September 20, 2011 More
Nutrition

Nutrition

Nutrition is the sum of the processes involved in consuming food and assimilating and utilizing it. Nutrition is concerned with all the nutrients that are needed to build sound bodies and promote health such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, water, and fiber. Good nutrition provides the essential nutrients that the body needs to function [...]

September 19, 2011 More
Nursing Home

Nursing Home

Nursing homes serve as residence for individuals who are too frail, too sick, or too disabled to live in their homes. It is estimated that nearly 12 million individuals are disabled enough to require long-term care. As of 1999, 1.5 million resided in nursing homes and over one third of nursing home residents were 85 [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Nursing

Nursing

Nursing is the profession of caring for the health of others; it is as much an art as it is a science. Nursing care was given by family members for many centuries and soldiers took care of wounded comrades in battles. However, nursing education did not begin until the 1800s when a hospital in Kaiserswerth, [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Nurse Practitioner

Nurse Practitioner

In the year 2000, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reported that 2,694,540 of the workforce were licensed registered nurses, representing the largest segment of health care personnel. Of this number, 102,829 were nurse practitioners (NPs). The most recent Advanced Practice Nursing Survey indicates that women represent 81% of this population with approximately [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Novello, Antonia

Novello, Antonia

Born in 1944 in a small town in Puerto Rico, Antonia Novello experienced the hardships of pain and disease early in life. Like many who go on to do great works, rather than breaking her, the challenges she faced shaped her character. Her father died when she was 8 and her childhood was overshadowed by [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Nightingale, Florence

Nightingale, Florence

During her parents’ 3-year honeymoon in Europe, Florence Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820, in Florence, Italy. She was named after her birthplace. Her only sister, Frances Parthenope, or Parthe, had been born a year before, also named after her birthplace (Parthenope is the Greek name for Naples). Florence’s parents were socially and politically [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Nicotine

Nicotine

Nicotine was first identified in the early 1800s. It is a stimulant from the same family as cocaine. Nicotine is a naturally occurring colorless liquid that turns brown when burned and acquires the odor of tobacco when exposed to air. Most nicotine is obtained through tobacco use. THE EFFECTS OF NICOTINE Most cigarettes in the [...]

September 17, 2011 More
New England Female Medical College

New England Female Medical College

The world’s first medical college for women was established in the United States in 1848. Originally the school was called the Boston Female Medical College, but later the name was changed to the New England Female Medical College. The school first opened its doors in 1848 and immediately enrolled 12 women in its first class. [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Neuropathy

Neuropathy

Nerves extend out from the central nervous system (spinal cord or brain) to supply muscle, skin, and other tissues. Nerves are comprised of a large number of microscopic nerve fibers. The core of each nerve fiber is the axon, which is a long, thin extension of a nerve cell located within or near the spinal [...]

September 17, 2011 More

Neural Tube Defects

Defects of neural tube development are congenital anomalies with an estimated incidence of 1 in 2,000 live births. Formation of the neural tube is completed by 28 days of gestation, before most women are even aware that they are pregnant. Neural tube defects (NTDs) result from the failure of closure of the neural folds at [...]

September 17, 2011 More

Neonatal Care Ethics

During the year 2000, there were over 4.5 million births in the United States. Nearly 12% of these births were defined as premature, that is, occurring at less than 37 weeks gestation, and 1% of these births were infants weighing less than 1,500 g. We have developed specialized expertise and technologies in order to take [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Nausea

Nausea

Nausea is a common symptom that is associated with a wide variety of conditions. Nausea is an unpleasant sensation in the upper abdomen often referred to as “queasiness,” which is usually accompanied by an urge to vomit. Vomiting, usually preceded by nausea, is defined as the forceful ejection of stomach contents up to and out [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Natural Family Planning

Natural Family Planning

Natural Family Planning planning is a method of understanding signs and patterns of fertility during the menstrual cycle to achieve or avoid pregnancy. Other terms for this method are fertility awareness method (FAM), the rhythm method, or periodic abstinence. The use of the term natural does not imply that other methods are “unnatural.” The expression [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Natural Childbirth

Natural Childbirth

What is natural childbirth today and what does the word “natural” mean to today’s woman in this world of technologic intensive labor? The dictionary definition of the word “natural” means legitimate; a state of nature untouched by influences of civilization and society; freedom from artificiality or constraint. Could not this be a definition of the [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Nail Care

Nail Care

One of the most common problems in caring for nails is picking and biting. The habit is common across all age groups. Picking and biting nails and cuticles increases the risk of infection by introducing bacteria. In general, the behavior often occurs as a result of anxiety or nervousness. Filing, even of the cuticles, is [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) that results in muscle weakness and fatigability. Muscle contractions occur when electrical impulses travel along motor nerve fibers and end at the neuromuscular junction. When an electrical impulse reaches the nerve fiber terminal, it causes the release of a molecule called acetylcholine (ACh). [...]

September 17, 2011 More
Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The cause stems from faulty regulation of the immune system. Myelin, the insulator of nerves, is attacked by the immune system because of improper recognition. Inflammation surrounding the nerves strips the myelin from the nerve fibers and damages some of the fibers [...]

September 17, 2011 More