Category: A

Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune Disorders

The immune system is a highly complex system of cells and chemical reactions that fights off infection and protects the body from germs. When germs invade the body, the immune system detects proteins on the surface of the germs and then gears up to remove the foreign invasion. In general the system works very well. [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Asthma

Asthma

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by periodic obstruction of the bronchioles. Two key features of asthma are reversible airflow obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to stimuli. Triggers of airway hyperresponsiveness include respiratory infections, exercise, cold or dry air, atmospheric pollutants, occupational irritants, or specific environmental allergens. other risk factors for asthma include heredity, history [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Assisted Living

Assisted Living

Individuals who need help with one or a few of the activities of daily living (such as meal preparation, dressing, bathing, and the like) can often continue to reside in the most independent setting possible if this help is provided. This is described as assisted living. Assisted living can be provided in the home or [...]

August 1, 2011 More
Asian and Pacific Islander

Asian and Pacific Islander

The women of Asia and the Pacific Islands are the world’s largest demographic group, comprising over one quarter of humankind. They inhabit regions as diverse as cosmopolitan Taipei and Tokyo, snowy Himalayan peaks, and the tropical isles of the Philippines. Over 10,000 years ago, Asians journeyed across land bridges and the ocean to become the [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Health beliefs

Health beliefs

Many Asian and Pacific Islander cultures have highly evolved health practices. Examples include acupuncture, Chinese herbal remedies, yoga, meditation, and Ayurvedic medicine, all of which are gaining increasing acceptance into mainstream America and being incorporated into Western medical practices. Whereas many Asian and Pacific Islander women are well informed about the offerings of Western medicine, [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Physical health

Physical health

Asian American women have the highest life expectancy of any ethnic group in the United States, at 85.8 years. Issues of major concern with Asian and Pacific Islander American women include: higher rates of osteoporosis, hepatitis B infection, and tuberculosis (TB). Lower incidences of screening for breast and cervical cancers are also of concern. Osteoporosis [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Mental health

Mental health

Suicide Whereas Western cultures view suicide as a religious sin, such a taboo does not exist in most Asian cultures. For traditional Chinese and Japanese, suicide can be seen as an honorable way to save face and to remove shame from one’s family. The Japanese language has over 20 words for suicide, mostly describing different [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Arthritis

Arthritis

Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the two most common types of generalized arthritis. Unfortunately, many think that the two terms are interchangeable but in fact, they are two very different diseases with different treatments. As treatments differ, it is vital that the correct diagnosis is made. Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

The term Anxiety Disorders refers to a category of psychiatric illnesses that are generally more chronic than substance use or affective (mood) disorders. It is estimated that 25% of the population have had some type of anxiety disorder in their lifetime. The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) classifies [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia Nervosa

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) categorizes eating disorders as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (ED-NOS). AN is characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight, refusal to maintain a normal body weight, disturbed perception of one’s own shape or size, and, if female, amenorrhea [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Americans with Disabilities Act

Americans with Disabilities Act

Signed in July 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) provides the disabled with protections similar to those already covering discrimination on the basis of sex, national origin, race, religion, and veteran status. An individual is protected under the ADA if his/her ability to perform one or more major life activities (such as hearing, sight, [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease

The syndrome of dementia is an irreversible decline in cognitive abilities that causes significant dysfunction. Like most syndromes, dementia can be caused by a number of diseases. In the 19th century, for example, a main cause of dementia was syphilis. Currently, as a result of dramatic increases in average human life expectancy, dementia is caused [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening

Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening

The value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in detecting neural tube defects was recognized over 30 years ago. AFP is a glycoprotein synthesized by the fetal yolk sac, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. When the fetal integument is not intact, markedly elevated levels of AFP occur in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Hence, elevated AFP levels are [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Alcohol Use

Alcohol Use

Although patterns of drinking and behaviour when inebriated vary cross-culturally, alcohol consumption affects men and women differently in all cultures for biological as well as social reasons. Women’s bodies metabolize alcohol differently from men’s because of their generally smaller body size, greater fat-to-muscle ratio, and fluctuating hormonal levels. Although the capacity to drink alcohol without [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Agricultural Work

Agricultural Work

Approximately 22,200 women in the United States are employed in agriculture as farm owners, managers, workers, and in other related occupations. Although women employed in agriculture represent a small portion of the total agricultural workforce—less than 15%—this number underestimates the contribution of women to agricultural productivity. Women contribute untold hours of unpaid work on farms. [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia is a psychiatric illness in which individuals are anxious about being in situations where escape may be difficult or embarrassing. Nervousness may also occur if someone is not available to help in case a panic attack or panic-like symptoms occur. Due to these apprehensions, individuals with agoraphobia begin to avoid situations, or experience intense [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Ageism

Ageism

The term “ageism,” a set of beliefs about age, was coined in the late 20th century. It is a form of stereotyping that refers to prejudgement or discrimination against any particular age group, although it is typically viewed today as a negative perspective about the aged. Categorizing by chronological development, ageism can be framed either [...]

July 28, 2011 More
African American womens

African American womens

African American (AA) women’s health care has been and continues to be unacceptably poor. Some AA women are numbered in the lowest socio-economic status for both wealth and education. Many of them live and raise their families under conditions of poverty with a primary concern for the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter. Health [...]

July 28, 2011 More
Health statistics

Health statistics

 The average life expectancy between 1950 and 2000 increased by an average of 8 years for males and females of all races. But, the most significant increase in life expectancy was among AA females whose average life expectancy increased by 12.3 years. This improvement has raised the average life expectancy to 75 years for AA [...]

July 28, 2011 More

Affirmative Action

Even with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the fight for equality and against discriminatory practice has continued. Although the Act is the nation’s strongest civil rights law, minority groups still lack basic equal opportunities. Affirmative action is a proactive policy used to provide equal opportunities for groups such as women, blacks, [...]

July 28, 2011 More